This paper is an account of the anatomy of the nervous system of the prothorax of the Tree Locust, Acanthacris. The methods of study are similar to those descriptionbed in the first paper of this series (Ewer, 1953). In the course of this study it was found that, in a number of features, the muscular anatomy of the prothorax of Acanthacris differed from that of other acridids which have been studied. These points have been descriptionbed in an earlier publication dealing specifically with this matter. (Ewer, 1955)
The present paper deals with a small collection of parasitic mites found by Dr F. Zumpt, of the South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg, in the nasal cavities of birds. The mites of this batch comprise six species, including a new one, and all belong to the family Rhinonyssidae, which is known to be confined strictly to birds. They were collected in two localities in Bechuanaland, during 1955-1956.
Whilst collecting along the banks of the Shawanoe, Hunyani and Ruwa Rivers in Southern Rhodesia, two new species of Sisyridae have been taken. All three rivers concerned form part of the Zambezi River system, and all flow throughout the year. These insects appear to be somewhat uncommon, and there are, apparently, no previous records of the family from the Federation; only one mention of their occurrence in Southern Africa has been traced (Kimmins, 1935.) The terminology used in this paper is mainly that used by Parfin and Gurney (1956).
While making a series of ventral dissections of Zonocerus elegans Thunb., I observed that the relative proportions of the ventral mesothoracic sclerites are very different in the two sexes. The breadth of the anterior margin of the basisternum is markedly less in the males than in the females. This difference is an expression of the fact that the sternal apophyses arise nearer the midline in the males than in the females. The phenomenon may be expressed in quantitative terms by the ratio of the breadth of the sternellum, at the level of the anterior margin of the basisternum, to the breadth of the anterior margin of the basisternum (Fig. 1a, x/y): for brevity this may be referred to as the basisternal ratio. The mean value of this ratio was found to be 1.95 in a sample of 41 males compared with LIB in a sample of 19 females, giving a male:female ratio of 1.65.
In may 1956, while on a collecting safari to the Kibale Forest, Toro, Uganda, I noted a female of the beautiful species Epitola urania tanganikensis laying its eggs on the bark of a tree in which there was a carton nest of Crematogaster ants. I searched the bark and found what was obviously an Epitola larva, which I took back to camp and placed together with some strips of bark in a cage. The larva eventually pupated.
Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa as a cotton pest has been known for a very long time. Ballou (1919) states that it was known in Egypt as early as 1860. The first scientific descriptionption of the damage caused by Oxycarenus to cotton is credited to Sickenberger (1890) who wrote that these insects ""suck the sap from the base of the young pods and from the blossoms and thus prevent their development; they attack also the seeds when they are tender, which results in a diminution of the germinative strength and consequently a diminution in the product of the plant"" (Morill, 1910). Peacock (1913), Ballou (1919), and other workers, studied the biology of Oxycarenus, but did not descriptionbe the nature and extent of the damage to cotton.
Vom ""South African Institute for Medical Research"" in Johannesburg, Sï¿½dafrika, erhielt ich eine kleine Kollektion von Milben, die Herr Dr. Zumpt in der Oase Rooibank, in der Namib 20 Meilen ï¿½stlich der Walfisch-Bai gelegen, gesammelt hat. Eine davon gehï¿½rt zur Gattung Humerobates Sellnick.
A study of the life-history of Precis octavia (Cram.) is a most interesting subject on account of the two very distinct forms of the imago, the red form (natalensis Stgr.) appearing predominantly in the warmer months and the blue form (sesamus Trim.) predominantly in the colder or winter months. There is a distinct range of intermediate forms but these are much in the minority.
In a previous paper (Ewer, 1954) it was shewn that the pterothorax of the last instar nymphs of certain acridids was equipped with muscles subsequently lost in the adult. It was further found that characteristic nymphal muscles also occurred in the first abdominal segment. It appeared of interest to discover whether the more posterior abdominal segments also possessed muscles peculiar to the nymph and to this end the musculature of the abdominal segments of nymphal and adult acridids of certain species has been studied. In the anterior region of the abdomen of certain Pyrgomorphinae there is a well developed repugnatorial gland. This occurs in both nymphal and adult instars. The muscular mechanics of this structure seemed worthy of study; the problem has already been examined by de Lotto (1950) and the present observations extend certain of his findings.
The use of genitalia for the classification of insects is based on the necessity for the copulatory organs of the male and the female to correspond to each other. The peculiar type of copulation in Odonata is carried out with the aid of special organs developed in this order of insects. In the Zygoptera, the anal appendages of the male instead of being used for engaging the external genital organs of the female are used for clasping the female on the back at the level of the prothorax, whilst secondary genitalia on the second abdominal segment are used for the purpose of performing the actual fertilization.
This paper deals with the identity of a small group of soft scales occurring in the Ethiopian region. Most of them are of economic importance as they attack cultivated plants on which, at times, they cause serious damage. The species included were chosen among those that in the writer's opinion are all clearly referable to the genus Coccus as it is currently understood.
The following notes comprise a fourth instalment to those published in previous issues of this Journal (Taylor, 1949, 1951, 1953), and, in some cases, are supplementary to them, additional data concerning several species having been obtained since the earlier parts were compiled. In such cases the appropriate references to previous parts are given in brackets. Various records found in the office of the Eastern Province Entomologist, Port Elizabeth, accumulated during the last forty odd years and apparently not hitherto published, have been included. Such records were obtained by the late D. Gunn and G. C. Haines, as well as by Messers H. J. Bishop, G. A. Hepburn and B. Smit. Fifty-one species in all are dealt with below in varying detail.
Starting with Trimen, there has always been a doubt in certain Lepidopterists' minds as to the correct placing in the Natal form of Leptomyrina lara (L.) and in order to try and settle the question the lifeï¿½ history of each has been worked out from eggs laid by each form, those of lara from Port Elizabeth and of the other insect from East London. The latter conforms exactly with Trimen's descriptionption of L. gorgias (Stoll).*