In the more arid and desert regions of South and South West Africa there are found several grasshoppers whose appearance and coloration resemble to a remarkable degree the stony ground upon which they live. Representatives of such lithophilous forms are found in the families Pamphagidae, Lentulidae (sensu Dirsh, 1956a: 169) and Lathiceridae. Truly apterous species are, however, confined to the two latter families only. In general appearance these stone-like forms are superficially very alike, the body is dorsoventrally depressed, often excessively widened in the metathoracic region giving them a spindle-like appearance, the integument is characteristically sculptured and rugulose, and the coloration varies considerably from white to brown and purple, harmonizing rather closely with the colour of the substrate upon which they live.
The following notes and descriptionptions are concerned with various collections of dragonflies submitted in recent years to the National Museum, Bulawayo, by collectors in tropical Africa. Of all the species mentioned the most interesting is a new megapodagriid from East Africa, collected by Dr M. T. Gillies and submitted in a collection for identification by Dr P. Corbet. The author is particularly indebted to those entomologists who have presented material to this Museum. Firstly, Col. T. H. E. Jackson, of Kenya, whose assistant Mr B. K. Watuliki has sent many consignments from Eastern Nigeria and the Congo Republic (the former French Moyen Congo).
The classification of Mackerras (1954: 435) divides the subfamily Pangoniinae into three tribes: Pangoniini, Scioniini and Philolichini. In a survey of the Tabanidae of the Ethiopian Region (Oldroyd, 1957: 34.) I concluded that all the known Pangoniinae of this Region belonged to the tribe Philolichini, with the exception of two specimens of uncertain generic position. One of these, a female horsefly with hairy eyes, had been taken in the Cape Province, and was discussed and figured, but not given a name (loc. cit.: 453).
Although much has been published on various aspects of the biology of the diaspid scale insects, little is known of the ""crawler"", the freeï¿½ living larval stage responsible for the distribution of the species. The present work was carried out on crawlers of the citrus mussel scale insect, Lepidosaphes beckii (Newm.), and relates to three questions hatching, the wandering period, and settling.
It was realized over 100 years ago (Bishopp, 1913), that Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) was an insect of veterinary importance. Since then, however, very little work has been done on its life-history. The object of this investigation was to ascertain the number of instars and their duration, and to do this with any degree of accuracy a study of the morphological development of the cephalopharyngeal sclerites seemed to be the only reliable method.
A very comprehensive work on this world-renowned yellow fever carrying mosquito has recently been published (Christophers, 1960). In the chapter on technique and laboratory rearing of the species (loc. cit.: 100-122) details of various methods used are descriptionbed. Most of the rearing technique is meant for rather large colonies and may be over complicated when it is merely desired to maintain a stock of the mosquito for periodic use, such as occasional tests with repellents and insecticides, or for demonstration of the different mosquito stages to students. As pointed out by Christophers (loc. cit.: 100) the method chosen should depend largely on the purpose for which the mosquitoes are required.
The type material of the species descriptionbed as new in this paper is deposited in the Acarina collection of the Institute for Zoological Research, Potchefstroom University. The author is extremely grateful to Dr C. O. Evans of the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) , London, for allowing the use of figures of type specimens made during his visit to the Berlese collection of the Stazione di Entomologia Agraria, Florence, Italy.
It is considered necessary to erect a new genus for a species of Exoprosopinae from various localities in Kenya, which, while resembling in some respects Isotamia Bezzi possesses certain aberrant characters that exclude it from that genus. Because of its aberrant and other characters it can also not be satisfactorily fitted into any of the current groupings of Exoprosopa Macquart.
Prior to the development of the synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides, fumigation with hydrocyanic acid was commonly employed for the control of infestations of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. The introduction of the highly persistent insecticides DDT, gamma BHC and dieldrin rapidly replaced HCN fumigation and resulted in a marked decrease in bed bug infestations throughout the world. However, as in the case of many other species of insects, continual use of the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides has resulted in the development of insecticide-resistant bed bug populations. DDT resistant bed bug populations were first reported from Hawaii in 1943 (Johnson and Hill, 1948), and later in Israel (Cwilich and Mer, 1957).
Among some scale insects submitted recently for identification from South Africa are some interesting collections of Clavaspis MacGillivray of the tribe Aspidiotini. Two of these, taken from plum and pear trees at Ceres, come close to C. pectinatus (Lindinger); redescriptionbed by Balachowsky (1956), but differ in only a few characters. It has not been possible, at this stage, to determine whether they are new species or whether they come within the range of variation of C. pectinatus. Another Clavaspis species submitted by the Department of Agriculture, Pretoria, showing an obvious relationship to C. pectinatus, seems definitely to be new and this is descriptionbed below.
Early in August 1959 individuals of a small black bee were seen investigating holes and crevices in the brick outer walls, as well as the woodwork of doors, etc., of the building occupied byï¿½ the Division of Entomology in Port Elizabeth. Specimens were sent to Dr K. V. Krombein, U.S. National Museum, and he stated it to be a species of Heriades, a genus of small bees of the family Megachilidae, to which the well-known leaf-cutting and carder bees also belong. Further material was later submitted to Prof. J. J. Pasteels, Brussels, who is of the opinion that it is H. freygessneri Schletterer, but that comparison with the type, believed to be in either Berlin or Vienna, is required to confirm this.
In cases of myiasis involving the invasion of living tissue by dipterous larvae, the physician or entomologist often wishes to rear out the adult fly in order to obtain an accurate identification of the parasite. If the maggot has reached the third instar when received, it will often pupate in a jar of soil, but earlier stages are unable to complete their development when removed from the host.