The diagnostic characters used for the purposes of classification in the eighteenth and early nineteenth century, as far as Lepidoptera are concerned, were mainly differences or similarities of appearance which were obvious to the casual observer, and among these, the peculiarities of colour and pattern of the wings received particular attention. It is obvious that a classification based on such superficial grounds was to a great extent illusionary, often bringing together, under the same genus, not only rather distantly related members of the same family, but also representatives of vastly different families and even of distinct suborders.
Arabian coffee, Coffea arabica L., is grown in Kenya at altitudes ranging from approximately 1050 m (3400 ft) to 2200 m (7200 ft). At the higher altitudes the coffee is grown under shade trees; at the lower altitudes it is unshaded. In one of the higher altitude districts, Upper Kiambu, Epigynopteryx stictigramma (Hmps.) has recently become a minor pest. The caterpillar feeds on leaves and may attack berries and flower buds. Outbreaks have occurred on several estates during the past few years and appear to be associated with frequent parathion sprays. The use of this insecticide became general in the district about 1959.
In his monograph on the lac insects Chamberlin (1923) erected the tribe Tachardinini with the genus Tachardina Ckll. and two subgenera Tachardina Ckll. and Afrotachardina Chamb. In his remarks on the genus he says: ""In spite of the general homogeneity of the genus there is a wide range of variation in certain of its features, and consequently it is found to break up into a number of more or less well-marked groups and subgenera. However, the number of species so far known, is too few to permit the arrangement of the subdivisions in really satisfactory form, and until more collecting is done the arrangement here given must be regarded as more or less provisional.""
Among the various species of fruit-piercing moths which occur in South Africa one of the most important and prevalent, at least as far as the Eastern Cape is concerned, is Achaea lienardi Bsd., originally descriptionbed in 1833. The genus Achaea is a large one and well over 20 species belonging to it have been recorded as attacking fruit, the majority in West Africa, but several also in Asia and Australia. A. lienardi is widely distributed in Africa, occurring from the Cape northwards to the Sudan and in West and East Africa as well.
Van der Merwe and Ryke (1963) followed the subdivision of the genus Amblyseius Berlese as given by Muma (1961). According to this interpretation the species descriptionbed here should be placed in different subgenera and A. papayana spec. nov. and A. sundi Pritchard and Baker (1962) should represent a new genus. Pritchard and Baker (1962) questioned the supra-specific importance of the absence of dorsal setae. The present author agrees that more evidence is necessary to support Muma's contention and the species descriptionbed below are conservatively restricted to the subgenus Amblyseius Berlese. The types are deposited in the Acarology Section, Plant Protection Research Institute, Pretoria.
Female; As I have been unable to find a proper descriptionption of the virgin female of O. smaragdina in the literature, I am descriptionbing and illustrating it here. Total length 16.8 mm, length from tip of mandibles to apex of epinotum 8.9 mm. Colour of the preserved specimen ferruginous, to a light emerald-green on the thorax, petiole, abdomen and legs. Head and antennae ferruginous.
The great majority of the specimens recorded were collected in Western Tanganyika during surveys of agricultural pests. The collecting of Diptera was never the primary object of the work, so the following is a summary of casual records. Ukiriguru is the Agricultural Research Station for Western Tanganyika and collecting was carried on throughout the year; a mercury-vapour lamp was also operated and some of the Diptera taken were recorded. Most of the collecting at other localities was done on short visits, or short stays by assistants during the growing season from December to July. All localities are shown on the map.
Sub-family Dytiscidae Diagnosis: Anterior border of the eyes not notched by a clypeal process; scutellum visible; prosternal process on the same plane as its apophysis; all tarsi with five segments easily visible.
In Southern Africa the species of Lampromyia Macquart, 1835 divide sharply into two subgenera, Lampromyia s. str. and Vermipardus Stuckenberg, 1960. The latter subgenus is exclusively South African and at the present time contains the following species: promontorii Stuckenberg, 1961 and brincki Stuckenberg, 1960, both known only from the Cape Peninsula; brevirostris Bezzi, 1926, intermedia Stuckenberg, 1955, univittata Stuckenberg, 1960, and basuto Stuckenberg, 1960, from the Eastern Cape Province, Natal and Basutoland. The distribution of these species reflects their relationships, the two Peninsula species being closely allied, the eastern ones forming a separate, compact group. The new species of Vermipardus descriptionbed below is very distinctive and seems to have no close affinity with any of those previously known.
Recently I received another consignment of bark and timber beetles from the Plant Protection Research Institute, Department of Agriculture, in Pretoria for identification. Somewhat earlier I had the opportunity to check some Bostrychidae and Brenthidae of the Staatliches Museum fï¿½r Tierkunde in Dresden and the Museum Frey in Tï¿½tzing near Munich. As the greater part of the specimens were taken from South African forest trees and might prove to be of economic importance it seems to be advisable to publish these records so that fellow-workers might be able to make use of them in future investigations. Descriptions of new species are also given.
The citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi (Ashby), was discovered near Durban in January, 1959, as reported by Bosman (1959), this being the first record of this insect pest in the Republic of South Africa. It was probably introduced into the country between 1950 and 1955, if not earlier. The citrus blackfly has been recorded as a very serious citrus pest in many parts of the world. The insect and the sooty mould which it causes can be harmful to the tree and cause defoliation. A severe infestation can reduce the crop or even result in the almost complete loss of the crop as the trees become stunted and cease to flower.
Two cases of Blaesoxipha filipjevi (Rhod.) parasitizing orthopterans in South Africa are cited by Greathead (1963). During a series of insecticide trials conducted by A. Lea and D. H. Botha at Aberdeen (C. P.), in March 1964, larvae were observed emerging from fifth instar hoppers of the Brown Locust, Locustana pardalina (Walker). The control hoppers, caught from the same swarming population, were brought to Pretoria where some larvae were obtained after emerging from their host. These were reared to maturity in the laboratory at a temperature of 28ï¿½ C in closed petri dishes, some containing dry and other wet sand.