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- Volume 31, Issue 2, 1968
Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa - Volume 31, Issue 2, 1968
Volumes & issues
Volume 31, Issue 2, 1968
Die ekologie van die malmier, Anoplolepis custodiens (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), in die sentrale Oranje-Vrystaat - Die bogrondse aktiwiteitspeil van die werkersAuthor J.F. LouwSource: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 31, pp 241 –248 (1968)More Less
The seasonal activity of the pugnacious ant, Anoplolepis custodiens (Smith). was studied in a paddock representative of the Central Orange Free State. The distribution in time of the number of workers active on the soil surface, tended towards the negative binomial. The insects were more active during spring and autumn than during summer and winter. The lowest activity was recorded in July, while the highest activity occurred during March. The influence of season on activity was further demonstrated by a significant relationship between activity on the one hand and rainfall, relative humidity and temperature on the other. A multiple regression equation was calculated which indicated that both air temperature and relative humidity had a highly significant influence on the activity of the ants. These two factors, however, were responsible for only about 40% of the total variation in the number of workers.
Author D.P. AnneckeSource: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 31, pp 249 –264 (1968)More Less
The material reported on in this paper was reared from the nests or from immature stages of African xylocopid and hylaeid bees. All the species dealt with are probably polyembryonic primary parasites. Names of these parasites are required for use in the publication of systematic and ecological research on the bees and on their natural enemies which is being undertaken by the principal collectors, Dr R. H. Watmough, Plant Protection Research Institute, Pretoria, and Professor C. D. Michener, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas.
A comparative morphological study of the male external genitalia of the type-species of some South African Notodontidae (Lepidoptera)Author Esther Van den BergSource: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 31, pp 265 –289 (1968)More Less
Earlier work on the Notodontidae in South Africa was restricted to a systematic account of the family, with descriptionptions of new genera and species (Janse, 1920), and a short article on the larvae of some species (Taylor, 1953). The morphology of the genitalia have not received attention in South Africa, though earlier workers such as Chapman (1911), Eyer (1956) and McDonnough (1911) have studied the male genitalia elsewhere.
Infesting Oranges with Larvae of the False Codling Moth, Lepidoptera: Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyr.)Author M.B. GeorgalaSource: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 31, pp 291 –296 (1968)More Less
The development of certain distant markets for South African citrus is influenced by the need to overcome various phytosanitary problems. One of these is the indigenous pest, the false codling moth, Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyr.), which passes its larval stage in citrus fruit. Myburgh (1965) developed a cold sterilisation treatment for false codling moth larvae, but the treatment is so severe that it exposes the fruit to the danger of injury, and it is felt that some alternative to low temperature, such as fumigation, should be sought.
Morphology and Relationships of the Male of an Asterolecanium species (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Asterolecaniidae)Author J.H. GiliomeeSource: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 31, pp 297 –308 (1968)More Less
The morphology of the male of Asterolecanium proteae is descriptionbed in detail. On account of the constricted neck region and the association of the tentorial arms with the cranial apophysis the Asterolecaniidae clearly belong to the lecanoid Coccoidea in Balachowsky's system of classification. The conclusions reached regarding their affinities are generally in agreement with those of Borchsenius, who studied the female morphology. Thus the closest relatives of the Asterolecaniidae are found in the Coccidae and Lecaniodiaspididae, and the Asterolecaniidae and Lecaniodiaspididae are considered to be two distinct families with the Lecaniodiaspididae more closely related to the Coccidae than to the Asterolecaniidae.
Author J.J.C. NelSource: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 31, pp 309 –321 (1968)More Less
The harvester termite is regarded as one of the most serious pests of natural pasture in the inland areas of South Africa. In the Central Orange Free State, complete resting of the natural pasture for three years, resulted in a significant increase in the basal cover in spite of the presence of the termites. There was also a marked decrease in the plant injury. Virtually all the damage to plants was done during winter. For example, more damage was done during June, 1965 than in the preceding seven months together. A positive correlation was demonstrated between plant injury and the number of foraging holes while there was a negative correlation between basal cover and plant injury. Spraying small plots with Dieldrin to keep them termite free resulted in no significant increase in yield compared with unsprayed control plots. It is concluded that the damage done by harvester termites in South Africa is often over-emphasised.
Source: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 31, pp 323 –336 (1968)More Less
The Membracidae which form the subject of this paper were collected by my friend Dr R. Linnavuori on a collecting expedition to Sudan and Ethiopia during 1962-3, and I am indebted to him for the opportunity of studying this material. All holotypes are in Dr Linnavuori's collection and where available paratypes are to be deposited in the National Collection of Insects, Pretoria. All measurements are in millimetres.
Author Charles D. MichenerSource: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 31, pp 337 –359 (1968)More Less
The purpose of this paper is to make known nests of several species of megachilid bees. Because it is not easy to obtain nesting data for any large number of species at one time, it is desirable to record such data when they are available even though they are rather miscellaneous. Only in this way can enough data be assembled to make possible, ultimately, a comprehensive treatment.
Source: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 31, pp 361 –364 (1968)More Less
The remarkable species here descriptionbed appears to be unique in the Psyllidae, in the strange formation of the veins of the forewing, which are raised like fins above the membrane. The nearest known species appears to be Aphorma aradi Heslop-Harrison (nomen nudum) from Iraq. Dr Heslop-Harrison presented a photograph of the forewing of this species, but failed to descriptionbe it or the genus Aphorma, other than by scattered references through the text of his paper, so it is impossible to make comparisons. He did state however, that the metatarsal spines were absent and that they are a constant character. It is therefore necessary to erect a new genus for the species herein descriptionbed.
Author Richard Zur StrassenSource: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 31, pp 365 –372 (1968)More Less
Several small collections of Thysanoptera from various parts of South Africa have in the past two years been sent in for identification. Most of these collections contained species from localities or regions where the species in question is not yet known. Amongst these species there are four which have been recorded only once before, whilst two other species are new to the fauna of South Africa, and a third has to be transferred to a genus descriptionbed below as new.
Author J.H. Malan, E.M. & GiliomeeSource: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 31, pp 373 –389 (1968)More Less
A survey showed that Dacus ciliatus, D. frontalis, D. vertebratus and D. bivittatus are found on various Cucurbitaceae in the Winter Rainfall Region. D. ciliatus is the most common species, damaging squash, pumpkin and sweet melon by inserting the eggs into the fruit, where the larvae develop.
The development of the citrus psylla, Trioza erytreae (Del Guercio) (Homoptera: Psyllidae), on Citrus lemon and four indigenous host plantsSource: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 31, pp 391 –402 (1968)More Less
The nymphal development of the citrus psylla, Trioza erytreae (Del Guercio) was followed on five different host plants in the family Rutaceae. Development was compared on Citrus limon (rough lemon) and four indigenous hosts, namely, Vepris undulata, Clausena anisata, Fagara capensis and Calodendrum capense. The suitability of these hosts for development of the psyllids was gauged (i) by the sizes attained by the nymphs, (ii) by the durations of the nymphal instars and (iii) by the mortalities of the nymphs on each host plant. It was concluded that V. undulata and Cl. anisata were most suitable for development of T. erytreae and that these plants are probably among the original indigenous hosts. Ci. limon and F. capensis were less suitable for development but still adequate. whereas Ca. capense was found to be entirely unsuitable.
Preliminary observations on the choice of host plants by adults of the citrus psylla, Trioza erytreae (Del Guercio) (Homoptera: Psyllidae)Source: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 31, pp 403 –410 (1968)More Less
Preliminary observations have been made on the choice of host plants by adults of the citrus psylla, Trioza erytreae (Del Guercio). This oligophagous insect was given the choice between leaves of Citrus limon (rough lemon) and four indigenous host plants, namely, Vepris undulata, Clausena anisata, Fagara capensis and Calodendrum capense. Of these hosts, Ci. limon was significantly more attractive to adults of T. erytreae as a feeding and oviposition site, and this preference was consistent even when the test psyllids had been reared for at least two generations on either V. undulata or Cl. anisata. In all cases, of the indigenous host plants tested, V. undulata was the most attractive to adults of T. erytreae for feeding and oviposition and the other indigenous plants were much less attractive. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Author K.M.F. ScottSource: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 31, pp 411 –415 (1968)More Less
An ecological survey of the Sundays River in the Eastern Cape Province of the Republic of South Africa is at present being carried out by Mr A. T. Forbes of the Institute for Freshwater Studies of Rhodes University. I have been asked to undertake the study of the Trichoptera of this river system, and at an early stage collected what appears to be a new species of Ecnomus. As a name is required for the purposes of the survey, I am descriptionbing the species in advance of the general account of the Trichoptera of the area, which will be published after a year's study of the river in question. It gives me pleasure to name the species after Mr Forbes, who has collected what may prove to be the larvae of the species, and who took me to the places at which the adults were captured.