Before descriptionbing new species of Psyllidae from Southern Africa, it seems desirable to present a check list of the species already recorded, together with such information regarding host plants and localities as is at present available. Of the forty species now known, twenty-two were descriptionbed by the late Dr F. W. Pettey (one being a synonym), twelve by the late Dr G. Heslop-Harrison and seven by other authors.
The genus Diaphorina Lï¿½w (1879), is represented by many species in Southern Africa, and its members are greatly in excess of those of all other genera in this region. Sixteen species have been descriptionbed and are listed in the first paper of this series (Capener, 1970). Eleven new species are descriptionbed here, most of which are strikingly different in wing pattern from those previously known.
Four new species of Coccophagus Westwood are descriptionbed from South African material which was reared from soft scale insects (Homoptera: Coccidae) collected on native plants. C. nigropleurum Girault is briefly redescriptionbed 'and figured, and is recorded as a frequent parasite of lac-insects in South Africa. A second specimen of C. amblydon Compere was traced and is here annotated and figured.
A new subgenus is descriptionbed for the species of Dennyus Neumann, 1906 parasitic on the avian genus Collocalia G. R. Gray. Redescriptionptions of two known species are provided; there is one new synomyn; and five new species are descriptionbed.
Slater & Sweet (1965) raised the tribe Psammini Bergroth to subfamily status and discussed the relationships to other lygaeoid groups. The subfamily has until now been represented by two genera, Psammium Breddin from South Africa and Sympeplus Bergroth from India. Through the kindness of Dr A. J. Hesse of the South African Museum, Cape Town, we have been able to examine a very distinctive new genus from South Africa.
The anopluran genus Solenopotes Enderlein, 1904 has in the past been considered to parasitize only members of the family Cervidae of the order Artiodactyla. There is one exception: S. capillatus Enderlein, 1904 is a widespread parasite of domestic cattle. Ferris (1932; 1951) considers that this species is a secondary parasite that has transferred from an unknown wild cervid to domestic cattle, on which it now occurs in Europe, North America (Ferris, 1951), Australia (Roberts, 1950) and South Africa (du Toit, 1968). It probably occurs in other countries as well, introduced on imported stock.
The Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, was descriptionbed in 1881, the same paper being re-issued 35 years later (Comstock, 1916). The original descriptionption contains almost no morphological characters of current taxonomic significance. Kuwana (1923) presented a relatively detailed descriptionption of what he considered to be C. floridensis. However, Takahashi (1953) concluded that previous records of this species from Japan were misidentifications of C. japonicus Green. Ferris (1950) published a redescriptionption which he attributed to C. floridensis. This redescriptionption was based on specimens collected in China, which were found to ""...agree quite closely with others from Florida which are accepted as this species"".
Recently Hodgson (1968a; 1968b) revised the Pulvinaria spp. at present known from the Ethiopian Region. At the time of this study, material of two species was unavailable, Pulvinaria vayssierei Castel-branco being one of them. Since then material of this species has been kindly made available by Dr. Castel-branco; material of the other species, P. dicrostachys Leonardi, has not yet been found.
The following two new species were included in the collection of Dytiscidae obtained by the Ross expedition to Africa 1957-58 and sent to me for study and identification by the Californian Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. The third has been in my collection undescriptionbed since 1948.
Fittkau (1962), in a reclassification of the world Tanypodinae (Diptera: Chironomidae), divided the genus Pentaneura Phillipi (sensu Edwards, 1929, and Freeman, 1955 and 1956) into eighteen genera, all of which he placed in the tribe Pentaneurini. This arrangement has been accepted in the main by other workers such as Beck & Beck (1966), Hamilton, Saether & Oliver (1969) and S. S. Roback of Philadelphia (private communication). Most of the African species belonging to this tribe can be placed in one or other of Fittkau's genera, but a notable exception is Ablabesmyia annulator Goetghebeur, 1935.
In his paper on South African Homoptera, Cogan (1916) descriptionbed twenty new species of Cicadelloidea, mainly from the vicinity of Cape Town. His descriptionptions are however inadequate for accurate identification and his figures are often misleading. Ten of these species are here redescriptionbed from the type specimens present in the South African Museum, Cape Town, and made available for study by Dr. A.J. Hesse. Typhlocyba purpureatincta Cogan will be treated in a paper to be published by Dr. B. M. Gerard and the remaining nine species could not be redescriptionbed because the types are either missing or consist only of females with which none of the males, collected thusfar in the type localities, could definitely be associated. Eighteen of Cogan's paratypes, deposited in the Ohio State University, were kindly made available by Professor Dwight M. DeLong, who also lent paratypes of Balclutha guajanae (DeLong).
In this paper the specific characters of Eretmocerus diversiciliatus Silvestri are clarified and E. nairobii spec. nov. from Kenya is descriptionbed. Eretmocerus diversiciliatus Silv. was descriptionbed from Lagos, Nigeria, in 1914. Since then numerous Mediterranean and African specimens of Eretmocerus have been erroneously determined as diversiciliatus. The following descriptionption of this species will, it is hoped, prevent further misidentifications.
Food collection by laboratory colonies of Hodotermes mossambicus (Hagen) showed a cyclical tendency which might be an indication that population regulation by individual colonies takes place. An experiment was set up in which it was arranged that adult workers were randomly and continually lost by nine colonies. These losses also were of a cyclical nature, but the cycles were out of phase with the food cycles, indicating that food collection was not dependent upon ""predation"". The only constituents of dry redgrass (Themeda triandra Forsk.) utilized to a large extent by the termites were the hexosans and pentosans. The nitrogen content of the food was low.
Field studies in the eastern Transvaal and Swaziland citrus areas showed that Trioza erytreae is attacked by a complex of predators consisting of several green and brown lacewings, two syrphids, a coccinellid, and spiders and mites. Most of the insect predators were observed to feed also on the black citrus aphid which is sympatric with T. erytreae. Predators were found to be poorly synchronized with their psylla prey during early summer, when T. erytreae undergoes a rapid population rise, and at certain other periods of low or rising prey density. Together with several other limiting factors, predators clearly assist in suppressing populations of T. erytreae in midsummer and continue to be fairly active in autumn and early winter.