A second species, Thaumastella namaquensis, is added to the genus and family. Its morphology is compared briefly with that of T. aradoides Horvath, and the distribution and biology are discussed. The distribution of the genus represents a Mediterranean-southern African xeric one, and several other insect examples of such a distribution are given.
Twenty-three species from Fernando Po and six from the neighbouring mainland are reviewed. Of the former, three species and one subspecies are confined to the island. A new species, Enallagma buchholzi, and a new subspecies, Chlorocypha cancellata insulana, are descriptionbed. The status of Umma splendida Navas is discussed, and it is suggested that a redescriptionption from the types may show close affinity to U. mesostigma (Selys). Some synonymy is indicated under the species Elattoneura pruinosa (Selys) and Africocypha lacuselephantum (Karsch). This last species exhibits remarkable polychroism.
Dahlbom, in his papers of 1843-44 and 1845, descriptionbed four species of Cerceris from the Ethiopian Region, namely picta, militaris, lunigera and formosa formosa, the first being Senegalese and the latter three South African. Furthermore, another species, Cerceris solitaria Dahlbom, 1845, originally descriptionbed from Egypt, has been conveniently included in my checklist (Empey, 1969), for records show that the distributional range of this particularly large species is right across Palaearctic North Africa, even Oriental India, with deep infiltration into some Ethiopian territories, both on the East and West sides of Africa.
The following species and subspecies of Cerceris Latreille, 1802 are figured and descriptionbed or redescriptionbed: C. bannisteri spec. nov.; C. herbsti spec. nov.; C. vulpecula vulpecula spec. et subspec. nov.; C. v. fuscicauda subspec. nov.; C. rhodesiensis spec. nov.; C. mutabilis Arnold, 1931, with descriptionption of hitherto undescriptionbed female; C. eulalia eulalia Brauns, 1926, stat. nov., with descriptionption of hitherto undescriptionbed male; C. e. transkeica subspec. nov.; C. holconota holconota Cameron, 1905, stat. nov.; C. h. labiosa subspec. nov.; C. h. oculata subspec. nov.
Hyphydrus malawiensis spec. nov., H. nigeriensis spec. nov., and H. inopinatus spec, nov. are descriptionbed, with notes on seven other species in the same subgenus (Apriophorus), one of which, H. circularis Rï¿½g., is sunk in synonymy with H. cycloides Rï¿½g.; a key to the males of all nine species is provided. Additional features of the male of H. fuscus O.-C. are descriptionbed. In the subgenus Allophydrus, H. residuus spec. nov. is descriptionbed and distinguished from H. grandis Cast. and H. caffer Boh
The following new species collected in South Africa, South West Africa, Rhodesia, Uganda and Ruanda are descriptionbed. Phaoniinae: Limnophora paraleptopus, L. marriotti, L. setulosa, L. transversalis, L. tibialis, L. natalensis, Spilogona wittei, S. aristalis, S. pseudospinipes, Phavnia capensis, Helina scutellaris, H. capensis, Mydaea gagnei, Hydrotaea patersoni, Gymnodia patersoni. Coenosiinae: Coenosia stuckenbergi, C. longiseta. Lispinae: Lispe capensis. Fanniinae: Fannia simulata.
The species dealt with are Aspidiotus artus spec. nov., A. atripileus spec. nov. (both descriptionbed), A. atomarius (Hall), comb. nov., A. elaeidis Marchal, A. queenslandicus Brimblecombe, A. coryphae Cockerell & Robinson, and A. fonsecai Giannotti, which is sunk in synonymy with A. nerii Bouche. A note on Cryptophyllaspis elongatus (Green) is included.
Aedes (Neomelaniconion) unidentatus spec. nov. and A. (N.) luridus spec. nov. are descriptionbed. Keys are given to the subgenera of Aedes and to the eight South African species in the subgenus Neomelaniconion, which are reviewed.
Supplementary descriptionptive notes are given of the female of the little-known Metaphycus ferrierei Compere, 1940, and the hitherto unknown male of the species is descriptionbed. The material studied was reared from the waxy scale insect, Gascardia destructor (Newstead), on citrus in Uganda.
The study shows that Culex univittatus in South Africa consists of two morphologically and biologically distinct species, C. univittatus Theobald and C. neavei Theobald. These species are allopatric, C. neavei occurring in the subtropical coastal lowlands of Natal and C. univittatus in the temperate Transvaal highveld. The ranges of the two appear to overlap on or near the Lebombo mountains in north-eastern Natal. At two of three localities sampled in this region a few possible intermediates were detected, but it was considered that these were accidental hybrids and that the two species largely co-exist at these places without interbreeding. Further evidence for reproductive isolation was obtained from crossing experiments with laboratory colonies of the two species, the results of which indicated that isolation was due to differences in mating behaviour.
The flight activity and movement of the leaf-miner moth Leucoptera meyricki Ghesq. and certain of its hymenopterous parasites, of which the eulophids Achrysocharis ritchiei (Ferr.), Pediolius coffeicola (Ferr.) and Cirrospilus variegatus (Masi) were the most common, were studied by means of suction traps within and around insecticide-free plots of multiple-stem Coffea arabica at Ruiru, Kenya.
Two new species of Protermes from central Africa are descriptionbed, P. mwekerae and P. minimus. New records and additional descriptionptive notes are included for the three already known species, P. hirticeps Sjï¿½stedt, P. minutus (Grassï¿½), P. prorepens Sjï¿½stedt). A map illustrating the phytogeographic distribution of these five species is included.
Field studies and a pot experiment showed that the nymphs of Trioza erytreae undergo prolonged development on poorly nourished citrus leaves. In the field, young growth of poor condition caused high rates of mortality and produced flattened nymphs of reduced size. These effects were apparently intensified under hot midsummer conditions. A series of in situ counts indicated that nymphal survival decreases with an increase in leaf size (age) and that there was a tendency for progressively higher survival towards the apex of the flush point regardless of leaf size.
The bionomics of the red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), the key pest of citrus in Swaziland, was studied for three seasons in 1967-70. Population fluctuations of scale and the activity of parasites and predators were studied at a large number of sites with a view to applying integrated control to the pest complex. This consisted of replacing the conventional spring application of parathion with practices designed to encourage the activity of natural enemies, together with the use of selective materials for control of other pests and ants.