The occurrence of small chitenous structures, called 'corneus spots', which occur on the membranous parts of some insect wings is briefly surveyed. Only four holometabolous orders possess these structures: Mecoptera, Neuroptera, Trichoptera and Hymenoptera. The detailed external morphology of corneus spots in selected examples from each order has been studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. It is tentatively suggested that corneus spots are either sensory or glandular organs.
A descriptionption is given of the immature stages of the wattle leafhopper Iassomorphus cedaranus. Data are presented on the developmental durations, preoviposition period, oviposition sites, fecundity and longevity in this species and an explanation is given for the varying sex ratios recorded in the field. l. cedaranus breeds on black wattle in Natal throughout the year and the pest status of the leafhopper on this plant is discussed.
A survey of insect infestation in seed heads in a large number of isolated communities of Protea barbigera Meisner (Proteaceae) in its natural mountain habitat, revealed that destructive insects were responsible for a reduction of up to 70% in the numbers of seeds per seed head during the normal period between flowering and maturation of the seed. Losses due to insects increased to nearly 100% if the seed heads remained on the plants for a longer period. In localities from which seed heads were harvested frequently, losses were 10% or less, pointing to regular harvesting and sanitation by removal of old seed heads as obvious aids to control of these pests in seed resources. The most important pest was the unidentified khaki moth, the larvae of which fed extensively in the seed heads. An unidentified curculionid, a cetoniid and the buprestid, Sphenoptera sinuosa Cast & Gory, contributed to seed destruction. The last-mentioned, together with the butterfly, Capys alphaeus (Cram.), and the moth, Cryptolechia ammopleura Meyer, inhibited seed production by destruction of shoot tips, flower buds and receptacles on which the seeds are formed.
Re-examination of the types of the Argentinian and Uruguayan species, Copidosoma koehleri Blanchard, reveals that the species has repeatedly been misidentified, and that C. uruguayensis Tachikawa is a synonym of it. A lectotype is designated for koehleri. C. desontisi spec. nov. is introduced for the misidentified species that originated in Chile.
The species of Arrhenophagus Aurivillius are revised following examination of types. Arrhenophagus intermedius Blanchard and A. parlatoreae (Risbec) are synonymized with A. chionaspidis Aurivillius, and A. albipes Girault is placed as a synonym of A. albitibiae Girault. The type species of Arrhenophagoidea, A. coloripes Girault, is redescriptionbed and three new South African species are descriptionbed, namely rolaspidis, chaetacmae and sierra. A key is given to the females of the species of Arrhenophagoidea.
The following six new species and one new subspecies of Tephritidae from Israel are descriptionbed together with notes on their host plants, as far as available: Urophora hermonis bred from Cousinia hermonis Boiss. (Compositae); Isoconia negeviana bred from Blepharis attenuata Napper (Acanthaceae); Oxyna superflava; Euarestella kugleri bred from Iphiona scabra DC. (Compositae); Tephritis cometa israelis bred from Cirsium gaillardoti Boiss. (Compositae); Trupanea erigeroni bred from Erigeron bovei (DC.) Boiss. (Compositae) and Trupanea pseudoamoena.
A grid of light traps is a convenient tool for the study of insect populations on an extensive scale. Data from light trap grids, which are used in conjunction with data on the development of immature stages, are proving of value in improving pest control in the U.S.A. and in eastern Africa. The history of a light trap grid for the study of pest populations in southern Africa, the organisation of the grid, and its equipment and methods, are briefly descriptionbed. Lists are included of light trap sites and often noctuid pest species on which data are exchanged. The aim of the grid is to provide entomologists in southern Africa with international data on the population fluctuations of important pest species. It is possible that use of these data will lead to the transformation of the grid from a research tool to a pest forecasting service for southern Africa.
The first flights by males of Nudaurelia cytherea clarki are made from the ground or from the object to which they have been clinging. Contrary to this, the females commence their first flights from the ends of branches. Egg laying, which takes place during the first half of the night, may explain the flight activity of females.
As a result of several collecting trips in South West Africa a total of 66 specimens of nocturnal eye-frequenting moths have been obtained from seven localities. The noctuids involved are Arcyophora longivalvis Guen., A. zanderi Feld. and A. patricula Hpsn.; they were collected from the eyes of domestic cattle and goats. The biotope forms part of the ""Tree Savanna and Woodland"", a series of the Guinea Savanna, Combretum spp. being the typical representative tree species of that plant association.
The South African garden acraea, Acraea horta (L), has been reared in captivity through ten generations under conditions of inbreeding (mostly brother-sister matings), without loss of vigour or any other deleterious effects. The methods used are descriptionbed, as well as some difficulties encountered (diapause, parasites), and the ways of combating these difficulties. Some variability within the strain used in the experiment was noted, though there were no clear indications of a concealed pool of genetic variability which had become overt due to inbreeding.
The taxonomic position of the Geroninae is discussed and it is concluded that the subfamily is closely allied to the Systropodinae and the Toxophorinae. These three taxa form a group which may warrant family status. The distribution of the Geroninae is discussed and it is concluded that the subfamily is an ancient Gondwanan taxon; the Bombyliidae of the Canary Islands are of African origin.