This is the first of a series of papers on African allodapine bee larvae. It is intended to provide comparative data on these, the most diverse and interesting of all bee larvae, so that a classification of them can be made and compared with that based on adults. This paper provides an account of ontogenetic changes that occur during larval life, as well as a study of specific differences among mature larvae of the genus Allodape. As restricted by Michener (1969 and in press), the genus Allodape occurs only in tropical and southern Africa. Included species are listed by Michener (in press) and those on which nest data are available are treated by Michener (1971). Major larval features of some species of Allodape have been known through the works of Brauns (1926) and Skaife (1953) but many details have remained undescriptionbed. Mature larvae of Allodape differ from those of other genera of allodapine bees in having long hairs on the head but these limited to the vertex and eight or less in number; in the large, rounded ventrolateral protuberances of the first body segment, these bearing seven to about twenty very long hairs; and in the presence of hairs on the dorsal surfaces only of most of the other body segments, the venter and other ventrolateral protuberances being hairless. The curled body, very short antennae, long hairs in the cephalic area, and other characters suggest the genus Braunsapis, but in nearly all species of that genus the long hairs are limited to the head and there are more than eight.
The imago of a new species of damselfly, Chlorolestes apricans, collected along the extent of the Amatola-Winterberg Range, is figured and descriptionbed. A comparison with C. umbratus Selys, 1862, which it resembles in general habitus, is included.
Eight African species of Microterys Thomson are dealt with. Two new species, reared from soft scale insects, are descriptionbed, namely, M. anneckei and M. ceroplastntae. New records and/or redescriptionptions are given of the following six descriptionbed species: capensis Annecke, kenyaensis Compere, nicholsoni Compere, bizanensis Compere, flavus (Howard) and haroldi Prinsloo & Rosen. The characters by which this group of species may be distinguished are given, as well as a key to the males and females of all these species.
A worker of Vesputa germanica was collected in Cape Town. Indications are that this species has been present for at least two years in the Cape Peninsula. Vespula germanica has also been reported from the Australian region where, because of the milder climate, it can overwinter as a colony. In Europe only fertilised queens overwinter. The only economic threat posed by this species is its destruction, by robbing, of weak beehives and the nuisance caused in recreation areas in autumn. The application of insecticides to nests and the use of artificial lures and baits have proved successful in reducing field populations in New Zealand and the United States of America.
The mean durations of the egg, larval and pupal stages of Chrysopa zastrowi Esb.-Pet. are 4,0, I I,5 and 10,2 days respectively. Adults lived under laboratory conditions for up to 66 days. The cannibalistic larvae are voracious feeders, especially during the final instar, consuming an average of nearly 500 and over 900 wheat aphids or potato tuber moth eggs respectively, during the larval stage. Third instar larvae showed no preference when offered a variety of six prey species, but survived better on some species than on others. Evidence is given which could throw more light on certain aspects of cocoon construction and the adult's emergence therefrom. Adults are mainly nocturnal in habit and probably reed on honeydew, nectar and possibly also pollen.
In a qualitative survey in both the natural habitat and commercial plantings of proteas (Proteaceae) 84 species were identified as either pests or aesthetically undesirable visitors in the protea genera Protea, Leucospermum, Leucodendron, Mimetes, Serruria, Brabejum and Orothamaus. Approximately 100 species, which have been observed to feed on proteas, have not yet been identified. Almost all these pests are of international phytosanitary importance to the protea cut-flower export industry. At least 20 species are serious pests, notably horers and leaf-miners, while an eriophyid mite appears to be the vector of a mycoplasm responsible for the witches' broom syndrome. There is some evidence that the number of pests of economic importance from a protea production point of dew may increase if serious ecological changes in habitat of both plants and pests are brought about in the course of the transition from reaping in natural habitat to commercial cultivation of proteas.
Two new genera, Avricus and Trijuba, are introduced for the inclusion of a few soft scales from Africa. To the former are assigned six species and a key to their separation is given. The latter is monotypic. References to the original descriptionptions of the respective type-species are also given.
Paracoccus daudus spec. nov.; P. larinus spec. nov.; P. latebrosus spec. nov.; and P. perperus spec. nov. are descriptionbed. A key for the separation of the seven species of the genus Paracoccus so far known from South Africa and South West Africa is included.
A new genus, Rhadinoxenus, is descriptionbed, illustrated (type-species, Rhadinoxenus pretoriusi spec. nov.), and assigned to the subtribe Termitogastrina tribe Corotocini, subfamily Aleocharinae. The type-species, also new, is descriptionbed from a nest of Rhadinoltrmes coarclatus (Sjoestedt) from the eastern district of Rhodesia. Its relationships with other genera of Term ito gastrin a and the genus Termitochara are discussed.
Microterys haroldi nom. nov. is proposed to replace the name Microterys fuscipennis Compere, preoccupied by Microterys fuscipennis (Dalman). Characters are given and illustrated 10 distinguish M. haroldi from species of Paraphaenodiscus Girault.
Field observations were made near Johannesburg to study the overwintering biology of Culex species in the highveld region of South Africa. Small numbers of adult females were collected in bait-traps intermittently during the winter. These were all nullipars in the case of C. pipiens and C. theileri which suggests that mosquitoes can either emerge in the autumn and overwinter, taking occasional blood-meals, or that they may emerge during warmer spells in winter and take blood. Some emergence observed in larvae of these 2 species in July supports the former. The only 2 catches of C. univiltalus were composed of pars. Winter larvae of C. theileri, C. pipiens and C. rubinolus were collected and further observations on the first 2 species showed that these larvae can overwinter in a state of quiescence.
Hyperusia Bezzi dates from 1921, not 1924, with type species minor Bezzi, by monotypy. Two new species of the genus, xantholeuca and intercedens, are descriptionbed from South West Africa and Botswana. The tribe Corsomyzini is discussed redefined and a key to genera provided. It is shown that Mariobezzia Becker is a Corsomyzine and the distribution of the tribe is mapped, that of Mariobezzia being descriptionbed as Afro-Iranian.