oa Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa - Biology of the hyperparasite Cheiloneurus paralia (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) reared on Microterys flavus (Howard) in brown soft scale



C. paralia was found to be a solitary endoparasite. The larva left its host just before completing its development and pupated near the remains of its primary host inside the mummified scale insect. It preferred encyrtids as primary hosts and could develop as a tertiary parasite in larvae of its own species. The developmental threshold was 11,2�C and the thermal constant was 202,7 day-degrees. Rearing C. paralia in a host only half as big as M. flavus reduced the body size to about half and the female percentage by more than half. Adult life span was little affected by low relative humidity. Females lived longer than males. After a pre-oviposition period of about two days they laid on average 62,6 eggs each, almost all during the first half of their life.


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