oa Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa - The physiology of the defensive glands of Parastizopus armaticeps P ringuey (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

Volume 44, Issue 2
  • ISSN : 0013-8789



The tenebrionid beetle Parastizopus armaticeps P�ringuey has a pair of defensive glands in its posterior abdomen which produce quinones. The gland openings are on the posterolateral border of the fifth sternite. When the insect is disturbed the secretion is exuded and spread over the dorsal side of the abdomen by leg movement. The glands are invaginations of the integument and are composed of a sac-like reservoir with an associated complex of secretory cells, which are of two types. The secretory cells possess cuticular organelles and drainage tubules which convey the secretions to the reservoir and prevent self-poisoning.

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