All available holotypes and syntypes of the Ethiopian and Madagascan species of Cerceris have been examined; lectotype designations have been made where applicable. Numerous new instances of synonymy are recorded, often necessitating status changes of the species concerned.
Trox senegalensis is descriptionbed as new. New distribution records are given for T. braacki Scholtz, T. caffer Iilianae Scholtz, T. consanguineus Peringuey, T. gunki Scholtz, T. rudebecki Haaf and T. tuberosus Kolbe.
Carpenter bees, Xylocopa capitata Smith 1854, are studied with regard to their activities at certain temperatures, the nectar and pollen they forage and their gross production efficiency. A great deal of time and energy, is invested in constructing the elaborate nests of this K-selected species.
The author presents a new terminology for the Apionid tegmen and discusses the generic characters of Apiomorphus Wagner, 1911, descriptionbing Apiomorphus (Apiomorphus) oberprieleri spec. nov., closely related to A. cyaneus Wagner, 1911.
Cross-mating experiments were done using Anopheles merus from Soutini, Gazankulu and from Makanis Drift, Zululand. Fertile male offspring and normal polytene chromosomes show them to be the same species.
The male larvae of heteronomous aphelinids have host relationships that are different from those of conspecific females. The adult females have behavioural adaptations that enable them to locate and identify the two 'types' of hosts and to deposit eggs of the appropriate sex. Physiological adaptations of eggs and larvae that are different in males and females are summarized. Parasitoid biology, particularly in the fields of parasitoid searching behaviour, sex ratios and resistance mechanisms to host immune responses are studied.
The southern African genus Daspletis Loew, 1858, is revised and a key presented for the separation of six species. Two new southern African genera are descriptionbed: Remotomyia, with four species and Anasillomos with a single new species. A key to these and other related genera of the tribe Stenopogonini is presented.
Two species of brood parasitoids infest the nests of Belonogaster juncea colonialis Kohl and B. petiolata (Degeer); a Tachinid fly (Anacamptomyia sp.) which parasitizes brood late in the season, and an Ichneumonid wasp (Camptotypus apicalis (Brulle)) which parasitizes brood early in the season.
It was discovered that four of the taxa which were descriptionbed as from Australia were based on specimens which had apparently been mislabelled and had been collected elsewhere. This report on these species brings the names involved to the attention of workers on the faunas of the other regions, viz., Palaearctic, Afrotropical and Neotropical. New synonymies for some of the taxa are present here.
The larva of Simulium gariepense is descriptionbed and the larvae and pupae of this species compared with those of S. griseicolle Becker. The taxonomic position of S. gariepense in the genus Simulium is briefly discussed.