oa Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa - Differences in host relationships between male and female heteronomous parasitoids (Aphelinidae: Chalcidoidea): A review of host location, oviposition and pre-imaginal physiology and morphology



The male larvae of heteronomous aphelinids have host relationships that are different from those of conspecific females. The adult females have behavioural adaptations that enable them to locate and identify the two 'types' of hosts and to deposit eggs of the appropriate sex. Physiological adaptations of eggs and larvae that are different in males and females are summarized. Parasitoid biology, particularly in the fields of parasitoid searching behaviour, sex ratios and resistance mechanisms to host immune responses are studied.


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