The meiotic process in Phymateus leprosus is descriptionbed for the first time. The diploid chromosome number in males and females is 19 (18 + XO) and 20 (18 + XX) respectively. Chromosomal analysis of field-collected grasshoppers revealed no meiotic abnormalities, thus suggesting that chromosomal rearrangements have played a minor role in the karyotype evolution of this species.
A synopsis of the southern African species of Pharoscymnus Bedel and Pharopsis Casey is given and the male genitalia are figured. Pharoscymnus kuisebensis, Pharoscymnus uncosiphonatus and Pharopsis tonderae are descriptionbed as new, and Pharoscymnus semiglobosus Karsch is found to be synonymous with Platynaspis capicola Crotch.
The contribution of the newly-established hakea fruit weevil, Erylenna conspula, to the mortality of seeds of the weed Hakea seneea in South Africa was measured at weekly intervals, each fruiting season, for three years. Natural abortion and other causes, such as rodent and insect feeding, were insignificant. The incidence of natural abortion was similar in the presence and absence of E. consputa.
The epigaeic invertebrate fauna in six fynbos sites of differing ages in the Jonkershoek Valley was sampled with pitfall traps. Of the 45 ant species trapped, Anoplolepis custodiens (Smith), Pheidole capensis Mayr and the Argentine ant lridomyrmex humilis Mayr were the most abundant, although the latter was only caught at one site. Ant species diversity and composition in firebreak sites and a site where fire had been excluded for 37 years did not differ much.
The epigaeic ant community was sampled in a firebreak in the summer months following a spring burn, and compared with that in two sites of adjacent, unburnt fynbos. Ants were simultaneously trapped in a nearby pine plantation. The ant species diversity in the newly burnt firebreak was higher than in the unburnt vegetation, whereas diversity in the pine plantation was low.
Unlike any other known oecanthine, males of the study species-2 produce two distinct call types. The two call types are descriptionbed, together with a two choice phonotaxis experiment, designed to test female response to the two signals.
Eleven species of trypetine Tephritidae are recorded from Madagascar, all descriptionbed as new: Hoplandromyia madagascariensis sp. nov., Euleia inconspicua sp.nov., Hemilea malgassa sp. nov., Taomyia pictipennis sp. nov., Myoleja andobana sp. nov., M. mailaka sp. nov., AI. perineta sp. nov., M. sandrangato sp. nov., M. tsaratanana sp. nov., Acidoxantha bisinuata sp. nov., Notomma munroi sp. nov. The taxonomic limits of the Afrotropical Trypetinae are discussed.
A survey was carried out on insects found in the inflorescences of Protea repens (L.) L. which flowers between March and July in the Western Cape. A total of 45 insect species was recorded of which 32 were Coleoptera. Chirodica spp.(Halticidae) comprised 70% of all the insects found. Experiments show that small beetles are important vectors of protea pollen a role hitherto attributed only to birds, rodents and large beetles.
Six new species of Anthicus (Aulacoderus) la Fertï¿½ are descriptionbed and illustrated. The material belongs to the National Collection of Insects, Pretoria, where the descriptionbed specimens are deposited.
The response of five field strains and one laboratory strain of Tetranychus cinnabarinus to amitraz was tested using a slide dip bio-assay technique. The different strains of mites responded differently to amitraz suggesting possible resistance. However, due to non-parallelism of some of the probit lines the degree of resistance could not be fully quantified.