Coccophagus atratus is a heteronomous hyperparasitoid: larval females are primary parasitoids of scale insects and males are hyperparasitic. More specifically, this species is a facultative autoparasitoid because males may parasitize conspecifics. Female larvae had a longer and more varied developmental period than males.
Dung beetles active on cow pads were collected over an II month period. The coprophagous beetles were identified and separated into three groups, namely endocoprids, telecoprids and paracoprids. We report on seasonal variation in species composition, species richness and activity patterns.
The possibility of organophosphate resistance in Insulaspis glocerii (Packard) was investigated for the insecticides parathion, chlorpyriphos and triazophos against two populations from Letaba (E Tvl) and the other from Addo (Eastern Cape). A third population from Nelspruit was used as a susceptible reference population. The Letaba population was found to be fairly resistant to parathion.
Kheper zurstrasseni sp. nov. from South Africa, Gymnopleurus particolor sp. nov. from west Africa and Onitis autumnalis sp. nov. from south east Africa, are descriptionbed and their relationships discussed. K. clericus (Boheman) is redescriptionbed and its geographical distribution is illustrated on a map together with those of the closely-related K . zurstrasseni and K. bonellii (MacLeay). A key is provided to separate O. autumnalis from six closely-related species and the geographical distribution of all seven species is depicted by maps.