Hylurgus ligniperda is a minor pest of pine trees in South Africa. Weekly log trapping over five years showed that the activity peak, which accounted for 37% of the total number of beetles captured, occurred in April/May. Although beetles were present in every month, H. ligniperda is active mainly in the cooler months with lowest numbers captured in summer. Comparisons between the three exotic scolytid pine bark beetles present in South Africa, (H. ligniperda, Orthotomicus erosus & Hylastes angustatus) showed that their population peaks are temporally separated. H. ligniperda may thus be of value as a bridging host for introduced biological control agents for the other two species.
This is the first report of the occurrence of stylopization in minor workers of Pheidole sp. found in a nest. Previous reports of stylopized Formicidae have been of single males found in light and black light traps. The strepsipteran Stichotrema robertsoni spec. n. a parasite of Pheidole sp., is descriptionbed. The heteromerous host relationship of the heterotrophic type in the family Myrmecolacidae (Strepsiptera) is outlined, and superparasitism in this species is discussed.
Nest construction behaviour and nest architecture in Belonogaster petiolata (Degeer) is descriptionbed. The presence of a continuous supply of water and suitable tree species (in particular Rhus spp,) are probably important in determining nesting sites. The choice of tree species for nesting may be related to the relative abundance of foraging ants on different tree species,
Three new species of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Dolichogenidea ficicola, Glyptapanteles pseudacraeae, and Parapanteles gerontogeae are descriptionbed from South Africa. Apanteles acraeae Wilkinson is transferred to the genus Glyptapanteles as a new combination and it is redescriptionbed to distinguish it from G. pseudacraeae.
The exotic invader Solanum mauritianum Scop. (bugweed) is attacked by mainly polyphagous insects in Natal/KwaZulu and the Transkei. There were more herbivores and higher levels of damage on indigenous Solanum species than on S. mauritianum. The herbivore community of Solanum panduriforme E.Mey., the most abundant of these, comprised mainly oligophagous species, many of which occurred on the other solanums examined.
The African species of Sponsor are keyed, illustrated and descriptionbed. Four species are redescriptionbed, and one new species (S. somaliensis spec. nov.) is descriptionbed. On hand of the new material it is argued that Stenianthe Fairmaire should be retained as a subgenus of Sponsor, but that Neoptosima Thï¿½ry should be synonymised with Sponsor s. str.
The genera of the subfamily Julodinae were revised by Holm (1979a), and the genus Neojulodis Kerremans by Holm (1979b). Subsequently, one new Neojulodis (Protojulodis) species was descriptionbed (Holm 1986). The new species of Neojulodis (Neojulodis) descriptionbed here is the first new member of this subgenus discovered in this century. It is an interesting species in that it seems to have a very restricted distribution in Namaqualand, while all other known species of this subgenus have rather wide Cape distributions.
We report the collection of resin and pollen from the inflorescences of Dalechampia capensis Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae) by Pachyanthidium cordatum (Smith) females. Bees in this tribe of Megachilidae, while known to collect floral resin in the New World, have not previously been observed collecting it in the Old World. Size and behaviour of P. cordatum suggests that it is an effective pollinator of D. capensis, but the close proximity of staminate and pistillate flowers does not preclude self-pollination or pollination by generalist pollen collectors.
Kiriakoff (1979) descriptionbed Amphiphalera nigripuncta on a holotype male from Kalinzu Forest, Uganda. Previously (Kiriakoff 1975), he had descriptionbed the 'neallotype female' of this taxon from Savane Forest, Mozambique. This earlier descriptionption appears to be valid under the rules of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and the descriptionption of A. nigripuncta therefore should date from 1975.
Some features of the biology of Pauesia sp. (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae), a parasitoid introduced into South Africa from south eastern United States against Cinara cronartii Tissot & Pepper, were studied in the laboratory and in the field. The upper threshold for development was determined as 29 ï¿½C. The minimum developmental threshold was 7,51 ï¿½C and the thermal constant was 206,19 day-degrees.