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- Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa
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- Volume 54, Issue 2, 1991
Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa - Volume 54, Issue 2, 1991
Volumes & issues
Volume 54, Issue 2, 1991
Emergence and oviposition of Quintillia cf. conspersa Karsch (Homoptera: Cicadidae) in the southern Karoo, South AfricaSource: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 54, pp 111 –119 (1991)More Less
The mass emergence of a cicada Quintillia cf. conspersa was observed in the southern Karoo. We suggest that Q. cf. conspersa emerges in response to rainfall in mid-summer. The density of emergence holes was correlated with the density of certain plant species. Eggs were most frequently laid on non-succulent Galenia fruticosa (L.f.) Sond. (Aizoaceae), but hatching success was higher on succulent Aizoaceae and Asteraceae. The selection of succulent plants as a substratum for ovipositing is unusual in the Cicadidae. Egg-batches were distributed randomly with respect to plant canopy condition.
Revised tribal classification of various genera of Trypetinae and Ceratitinae, and the description of a new species of Taomyia Bezzi (Diptera: Tephritidae)Author David L. HancockSource: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 54, pp 121 –128 (1991)More Less
Taomyia mauritiana sp. nov. is descriptionbed from Mauritius. A key to the species of Taomyia Bezzi is provided, together with an improved key to the Afrotropical genera of Trypetini. The taxonomic relationships of several genera and species of Trypetinae and Ceratitinae are discussed and new host records presented. Ceratitis pycnanthi (GhesquiÃ¨re) is transferred from subgenus Pardalaspis Bezzi to subgenus Ceratalaspis Hancock, whilst Myoleja fossataeformis (Bezzi), comb. nov. and Myoleja inconspicua (Hancock), comb. nov. are transferred from Euleia Walker. Cycasia Malloch is placed as a new synonym of Ornithoschema de Meijere.
Author W.J. Van AardtSource: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 54, pp 129 –139 (1991)More Less
The oxygen consumption rate of adult Opisthophthalmus latimanus is 4,2 Â± 0,8 mmol/l/h/g (96 Â± 17,9 microlitres/h/g) at 25Â°C with Q 10 values of 2,4 between 15Â°C and 25Â°C and 1,57 between 25Â°C and 35Â°C. The pH of centrifuged haemolymph (concentration: 1 15 Â± 7,5 mg/ml) is 7,43 Â± 0,09 at 25Â°C. The ionic composition found in the Indian scorpion (Padmanabhanaidu, 1966b) is the same in O. latimanus. The Mg and total carbon dioxide concentrations are 1,80 Â± 0,2 mmol/l and 6,5 Â± 0,2 mmol/l respectively. Sub-unit co-operativety of the haemocyanin molecule was significantly increased and haemocyanin affinity significantly decreased by rising temperatures. From the results it can be concluded that the respiration physiology in O. lalimanus is suppressed at high temperature regimes (25Â°C-35Â°C).
The influence of constant temperature on the development and survival of the immature stages of Culex (Culex) theileri Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae)Source: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 54, pp 141 –153 (1991)More Less
The effect of various constant temperatures on the development of laboratory-reared mosquitoes (Group A) and on the progeny of field-acclimatized adults (Group B) was studied. For both groups the optimum development temperature was 27Â°C and the peak development temperature was 33Â°C. The thresholds of development were 7,9Â°C and 6,3Â°C, while the average development times were 11,9 days and 11,3 days for groups A and B respectively. The highest percentage survival occurred at 27Â°C for Group A while 21Â°C- 27Â°C gave the same survival for Group B. The upper critical limits of development to adulthood were 36Â°C and 33Â°C respectively while the lower limits were 15Â°C (Group A) and 12Â°C (Group B).
Source: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 54, pp 155 –162 (1991)More Less
Meiosis in five species of Euryphyminae, Amblyphymus adspersus, Am. roseus, Aneuryphymus erythropus, Calliptamicus semiroseus and Euryphymus tuberculatus is descriptionbed. The karyotypes are typically acridid with all chromosomes acrocentric and of different lengths. Bivalent type profiles of the five species were constructed and comparisons of chiasma positions and frequencies made. The positions of chiasmata were not localized. The mean chiasma frequencies for the five species varied between 13.93 (Am. adspersus) and 17.5 (An. erythropus) .
A review of the genus Astomella Lamarck in southern Africa, with the description of two new species (Diptera: Acroceridae: Panopinae)Author David A. BarracloughSource: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 54, pp 163 –172 (1991)More Less
Astomella deserticola and A. montana are descriptionbed from southeastern Namibia and the Natal Drakensherg respectively. Further records of A. capensis Schlinger and A. gessi Barraclough from Natal and the eastern Transvaal are listed and discussed. A generic diagnosis and a revised key to the southern African species of Astomella are provided, while the regional distribution is evaluated.
Author David L. HankockSource: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 54, pp 173 –184 (1991)More Less
The species discussed here traditionally have been placed in the subfamily Aciurinae, a group that has long defied proper delineation. Recently (Hancock 1991), I transferred the group to a tribe within the Tephritinae and amalgamated it with the Tephrellini, that name having nomenclatural priority. The limits of the group were redefined, with many previously included genera being removed to other tribes. The Platensina group of genera, often considered to belong to the Aciurinae, was transferred to the Tephritini and accordingly is not treated in the present study.
The egg of the Highveld blowfly, Calliphora croceipalpis Jaennicke (Diptera: Calliphoridae), with a key to the eggs of five other Highveld speciesAuthor Ivan MeskinSource: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 54, pp 185 –190 (1991)More Less
The egg of Calliphora croceipalpis Jaennicke is descriptionbed and illustrated using both light microscopy and scanning electron micrographs. Emphasis is placed on the extent and nature of the median strip. A key to the eggs of C. croceipalpis and five other Highveld blowfly species is presented. The species are: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Hemipyrellia fernandica (Macquart), Chrysomya chloropyga (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann).
Author Richard Zur StrassenSource: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 54, pp 191 –196 (1991)More Less
Mallothrips giliomeei spec. nov., from the southwestern Cape Province, South Africa, is descriptionbed and illustrated. The species belongs in the Phlaeothripidae to the tribe Hoplothripini and inhabits the leaves of the tree Nuxia floribunda Bentham (Loganiaceae) causing marginal leaf rolls. This is the first record of Mallothrips outside India.
Descriptions of the larvae of seven species of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) from southern Africa, and a regional checklist of the family .Author R.W. PalmerSource: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 54, pp 197 –219 (1991)More Less
Larvae of Simulium (Freemanellum) hessei Gibbins, 1941, S. (Metomphalus) letabum de Meillon, 1935, S. (Nevermannia) rutherfoordi de Meillon, 1937, S. (Nevermannia) katangae Fain, 1951, S. (Pomeroyellum) bequaerti Gibbins, 1936, S. (Pomeroyellum) harrisoni Freeman & de Meillon, 1953 and S. (Pomeroyellum) merops de Meilion, 1950 are descriptionbed for the first time from specimens collected in southern Africa. Descriptions include ecologically useful information, such as cephalic-fan structure, which is normally not included in formal taxonomic descriptionptions. Cephalic fan rays of S. hessei bear two rows of long and flexible microtrichia with curved tips which hook around the base of microtrichia on adjacent rays to form a coupling network. A checklist of southern African blackflies is provided.
Wing structure of the genus Eucanthus Westwood; confirmation of the primitive nature of the genus (Scarabaeoidea: Geotrupidae: Bolboceratinae)Source: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 54, pp 221 –230 (1991)More Less
Wing characters of the genus Eucanthus are examined. These confirm the genus' placement as the most primitive in the Geotrupidae. It comprises two lineages, a primitive Nearctic, and a derived Neotropical-Australian lineage. The current disjunct distribution of the genus reflects an ancient separation with the two lineages being relictual. Wing characters demonstrate that the Bolboceratini, as it is currently recognized, is a polyphyletic tribe. It is hypothesized that Eucanthus is the sister group of the Bolboceratini+Athyreini lineage. This accounts for the morphological gap between them. It is recommended that Eucanthus be elevated to tribe status, with the two lineages consequently being elevated to generic status.
The effect of single and mixed populations of Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on damage to grain sorghumSource: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 54, pp 231 –242 (1991)More Less
Field damage to grain sorghum by Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) and Busseola fusca (Fuller) in both separate and mixed populations, was compared using different levels of artificial infestation on caged plants. At high infestation levels, plant damage and yield loss caused by the two borer species was very similar. However, C. partellus was more injurious to tillers, as indicated by higher numbers of damaged internodes and reduced yield. Damage and yield loss increased when B. fusca and C. partellus formed mixed populations. Compensation for borer damage was reflected by increases in branch yield relative to total yield. Damage did not increase above a critical infestation level of 20 eggs and this was ascribed to a density dependent mechanism which prevents overcrowding of larvae in individual stems. Regression equations descriptionbing the relationships between infestation levels and both whorl damage and yield loss were determined for each pest species in both separate and mixed populations.
Source: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 54, pp 243 –259 (1991)More Less
The African sugarcane borer, Eldana saccharina Walker, has a complex communication system between the sexes that is little understood. As in some other members of the Gallerinae, ultrasound is emitted from tymbals on the tegulae of the male moth, which in E. saccharina are buckled by the wing couplers and reset during a characteristic, low-amplitude, type of wing-fluttering. The frequency of the sound extended from 20 to 120 kHz, with peaks between 30 and 80 kHz, in trains of 4-6 highly damped pulses each pulse lasting 100 Âµs. The ultrasound seems to induce wing fanning in the female, and is used for aggression toward other males. It may also act as an attractant of both sexes although in neither laboratory tests nor field trapping was ultrasound used. Scents are released from fore-wing glands of the male during a different, full-amplitude, type of wing fanning, as well as from eversible abdominal hair-pencils. Although the compounds in these presumed pheromones have been indentified in the literature, and functions assigned to them, their role is not clear. Extracts from neither gland system were attractive on their own in traps but in olfactometer tests, hair-pencil extracts seemed the more attractive to females. During field trapping with live males as bait, many more males were caught than females; therefore part of the message emitted attracts other males to form groups. Bait males with one gland system or the other rendered inactive were less attractive to other males than intact males; but one gland system was as attractive as the other. The numbers of females caught were too few for statistical differences but the hair pencils seemed the more attractive.
Author K.S. Scholtz, C.H. & ColesSource: Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 54, pp 261 –264 (1991)More Less