Africaspis baphiae sp.n. (Fig. 1). Puparium of adult female white, elongated and moderately broadened posteriorly. Larval exuvium pale brown, nymphal exuvium deep orange but covered by a thin film of white secretionary matter. Secretionary appendix white, smooth, with no transverse striations.
Otilipeurus bedfordi sp. nov. Exceedingly close to O. kori Bedford. the two species being distinguished from all other descriptionbed members of the genus except O. turmalis (Denny) by their very rounded heads, and from turmalis by their much less prominent temples.
During 1937 and 1938, citrus groves in the neighbourhood of Petah Tikvah, Mikveh Israel and Rishon-le-Zion were infested with mealy bugs showing distinct differences from the common citrus mealy bug, Pseudococcus citri Risso. and which were, until then, not known to occur in Palestine. Material was sent for examination to the British Museum and to authorities in the United States and elsewhere. Laing, of the British Museum, first reported that it was Ps. comstocki (Kuwana). Upon examination of further material, Laing realized that at least three species were included.
In a previous article (1941) the writer gave some details of the biology of certain Chrysomelidae collected in and around Johannesburg. It was indicated that, in the majority of Chrysomelidae, the larvae and adults do a considerable amount of damage to the foliage of their food-plants and it is well known that some species may forsake their original wild host-plants and attack cultivated plants, some of which may be of commercial value. In this respect the Halticinae or ""flea-beetles"" are of economic importance, for many of them have become serious pests, not only of garden plants, but also of certain crops.
With a view to gaining some knowledge of the early stages of Phasis (Poecilmitis) chrysaor Trim.) several eggs and young larvae were procured and observations made on the various stages, including all the larval instars, The life-history of this common, brilliantly-coloured butterfly does not seem to have been worked out before. The imago was originally descriptionbed by Trimen.* It is descriptionbed and illustrated in his ""South African Butterflies"" (Vol. II. pp. 172~173, and pl. IX, fig. 2), and in Murray's ""South African Butterflies: A Monograph of the Family Lycaenidae"" (p. 108 and fig. 54).
Of the parasites which attack blow-flies, Mormoniella vitripennis Walk. is one of the best known and most widely distributed. The stock used in these experiments was derived from host pupae which had been exposed in the laboratory. It had been bred in captivity for about a year when these investigations were started. From time to time, fresh parasites, obtained from field-parasitized pupae, were added.
The efficiency of the individual species of parasites attacking any host insect is governed by a number of factors. Perhaps the most important of these is the psychological one which concerns the ability of the female to discriminate between hosts which are suitable for the development of her progeny and those which are not. Without such a faculty, an appreciable wastage of progeny must result through the female ovipositing in hosts which have been parasitized already by individuals of her own or another species.
Records of maternal care in thrips are rare, only two being known to me. Ramakrishna Ayyar (4), writing on the Thysanoptera of India, refers briefly to the mother insect, in Kleothrips (= Tiarothrips) subramanii R. and in Leeuwenia karnyi R., brooding over the eggs for "" a long time almost till the latter hatch out."" Bagnall again, while discussing Dicaiothrips (= Elaphrothrips) brevicornis Bagn., says, ""Mr. Urich states that examples were observed to deposit eggs on the leaves and to sit over them.""
This unique butterfly was first discovered by Miss Margaret Kenway in January, 1925, near Haenertsburg. No mention was made of its true locality in the descriptionption, but it can be assumed that it is one of the high mountain peaks of the Wolkberg range south of the village.
Bolothrips (Bolothrips) cinctus spec. nov. (Fig. 1). Female (apterous). Length about 2.14 mm. (distended). Colour: Body bicolorous: head and ii to tube of abdomen brown, thorax and all legs yellow, antennae largely yellow. Head brown, yellowish brown near base of antennae, darker on cheeks, paler than iii to viii of abdomen. Eyes yellow, with black underlying tissue.
Anopheles (Neomyzomyia). radama sp. nov. (Fig. 1, d, e, f, g). Female Head: with broad yellowish upright forked scales in the middle; frontal tuft prominent; third segment of the antennae with a patch of white scales interiorly; palps shaggy with four narrow pale bands. Mesonotum: densely clothed with broad fiat, yellowish scales, medianally some narrower yellowish scales present; scutellum with similar scales; anterior tuft not pronounced, composed of short, upright, rather broad yellowish scales which appear truncated if not forked..
It has long been known that the codling moth (Carpocapsa pomonella L. Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) hibernates as a larva within the cocoon during the winter months. From observations of Pettey (1916) and unpublished data of this Institute, it is clear that, with the exception of a few late pupae in March and a few early pupae in August, no codling moth pupae occur in pear and apple orchards in the Western Cape Province during the six months from the beginning of March to the end of August. In the case of apricot orchards, where the pest is predominantly one-brooded (Pettey, 1925, Pettey and Joubert, 1926) pupae may be absent for a period of nine to ten months.
The importance of ovicides in the control of codling moth is generally accepted and needs no further comment. The various factors affecting the effectiveness of an ovicide have already received much attention but the type of surface where most of the eggs to be treated are deposited and to which the ovicide must be applied, especially in the case of pears, still needs further investigation. In other words, before applying an ovicide against codling m9th on pears, it is important to know (1) exactly where the eggs are usually deposited, i.e., whether they are laid on the lower or upper leaf surfaces, or on the fruit, or on the branches; (2) whether they are laid on the same types of situation throughout the season; and (3) their quantitative distribution.