Type: Tinea ahenella Schiff., from Europe and Asia Minor. Male. Proboscis moderate, scaly at base; labial palpi porrect, three and a half times eye; rostriform, closely covered with scales, tapering to a point; second joint about three times first joint, thickest at middle; third joint half of second joint, thin, of almost even width; maxillary palpi three-jointed; joints of almost even length, third joint suboval; all joints/covered with moderately long scales; eyes suboval; ocelli and chaetosema present; frons smooth, somewhat flattened;
Lichtkompassbewegung (Light-Compass Reaction, Orientation or Menotaxis) exists in ants and bees. In executing movements which are descriptionbed as belonging to this type of reaction, these hymenoptera have one fixed point, the nest or hive, and move according to the angle between this fixed point and the sun. One infers that . the angle may be made with the left or right side of the animal.
As the life-history of Cupido thespis (L.) apparently had not been recorded, material was recently obtained for the purpose of studying it. The imago was descriptionbed as early as 1764.* Trimen has descriptionbed and figured it in ""South African Butterflies"" (Vol. II, pp. 87-88, pl. VIII, figs. 2, 2a), and Murray in ""South African Butterflies: A Monograph of the Family Lycaenidae"" (p. 157, fig. 102). Some. eggs of the species were obtained on the slopes above Camps Bay on the afternoon of 25th. December, 1943, several females being followed until they commenced laying. Eggs were laid singly, usually at or near the ends of the fine-leaved shoots of a species of Phylica (Rhamnaceae).
A caudal appendage, or ""tail"", is present in the primary larvae belonging to several diverse groups among the entomophagous Hymenoptera. It is prominent in members of the sub-families Ophioninae, Cryptinae and Pimplinae and in the Braconid genera. Meteorus and Dinocampus. It is less well-developed in Proan and Aphidius. Several Chalcid genera possess it (Parker, 1924) and it is found in the primary larvae of the Figitidae and in some Proctotrypoidea.
In 1930 Sinton gave a list of the African sandflies and in 1931 Theodor published a similar list. Theodor recorded 20 species which included the Mediterranean fauna as well. Since that date a large number of new species has been descriptionbed. We have thought, therefore, that it would serve a useful purpose to give an up to date catalogue of the purely Ethiopian fauna which now includes over 40 species. We do not give exhaustive references but only those which may be regarded as important for identification.
In order to introduce the Tachinid parasite, Compsilura concinnata from Canada, to assist the native parasites of the brown-tail moth, Euproctis terminalis Walk., which attacks pine trees in South Africa, it is necessary to breed up large numbers of the fly for liberation in the field. Compsilura has about 138 known hosts; it is a potential parasite of Euproctis, because the latter is closely related to the American Brown-tail moth, Nygmia phaeorrhoea Don., which it parasitizes in Canada and the United States of America. Due to the difficulty of handling and breeding Euproctis in the laboratory, it was decided to breed the parasite in some other host.
Of the various host plants enumerated above, the most important from an economic point of view is the Citrus. Nevertheless Coccus hesperidum is not considered to be an important pest of these species. The citrus trees may be infested in a number of ways, such as: 1) Single females may be observed on the leaves or on young twigs in a dispersed manner. As a rule, such an infestation is very slight and harmless and evenly distributed in the grove or a section thereof. It is so inconspicuous that it does not attract the attention of the citrus grower.
A great diversity of opinion has existed with regard to the nomenclature of a number of species included in the large genus Cupido. Erected by Schrank in 1801, the type being C. puer Schr. (Papillio minimus Fuessl, 1775), the genus has been split up since into a multiplicity of small genera by various authors, often without sufficient grounds to warrant distinction. Confusion of names has resulted so that often it is very difficult to know what is the reorganized name of a particular insect and what the type of the genus.
Lepidoptera. Food-plants and notes. Pseudonympha sabacus Trim. Cynodon dactylon Pers. (Fine quick grass) (Gramineae). P. trimenii Butl. Danthonia stricta Schrad. (Gramineae). Leptoneura clytus L. Stenotaphrum glabrum Trin. (Coarse quick grass). Cynodon dactylon Pers. (Gramineae). Butterfly settles and lays several eggs, which, when released from abdomen, fall amongst or near grass.
Many references in the literature deal with the treatment of potatoes infested with the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zell. Fumigation is apparently one of the most successful methods employed, some of the fumigants which have been used being carbon bisulphide, methalyll chloride, acetylene gas, hydro-cyanic acid gas, naphthalene, para-dichlorobenzene and petrol. Of these chemicals, CS2 appears to be the most effective as well as the most popular.
On the eastern slopes of the Drakensberg, in the Pilgrimsrest district of the eastern Transvaal, the Natives regard a certain large pentatomid bug as a great delicacy. Although the insect emits a very strong, characteristic"" stink-bug"" odour, it is in great demand, and it is eaten both raw and cooked. Once more one has to admire the abiding truth and wisdom of the old proverb de gustibus non est disputandum, but in this case it would be more appropriate to misquote it, with Malcolm Burr, as ""disgustibus"".
Known locally as the Harugwa, this insect is of a dull green colour, changing to a yellow-green in its adult stage, when it reaches an inch in length. The insect is rectangular in shape and has a strong musk-like smell This odour may perhaps be best likened to rancid almonds and is repellant to Europeans; nevertheless, the Natives of the Bikita district prefer the Harugwa to the locust (brown or red), and consider themselves fortunate to be permitted to eat them.