- A-Z Publications
- Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa
- Previous Issues
- Volume 13, Issue 1, 2002
Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa - Volume 13, Issue 1, 2002
Volume 13, Issue 1, 2002
Author H. OdendaalSource: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa 13, pp 5 –8 (2002)More Less
Extracted from text ... Preeclampsia is a common complication of pregnancy in both developed and developing countries. Mild preeclampsia usually has a good prognosis for both mother and baby. However, severe preeclampsia and eclampsia could have grave consequences for the mother and foetus or newborn. This is a real problem in developing countries where sufficient numbers of trained personnel and adequate facilities are not available. These limited resources over many years have forced one to avoid unnecessary special investigations and use intensive-care facilities as effectively as possible without unnecessarily endangering the lives of the mother or baby. Preeclampsia is generally defined as severe when ..
Manipulation of papillary muscle cyclic nucleotides during anoxia-reoxygenation : effects on contractility : cardiovascular topicsSource: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa 13, pp 10 –16 (2002)More Less
Endogenous nitric oxide and the accompanying cGMP formation has been postulated to play a role in the pathophysiology of myocardial anoxia-reoxygenation. A direct relationship between cGMP and the alterations observed in contractility under these conditions has never been demonstrated. In this study, cGMP in rat papillary muscles during anoxia and reoxygenation was correlated with mechanical function. Isolated papillary muscles were stimulated continuously and made anoxic for 40 min after a 2-hour stabilisation period. Anoxia caused an abbreviated contraction curve by decreasing the maximum contraction strength, time to peak contraction and relaxation time, accompanied by a significant decrease in tissue cGMP and cAMP levels (controls: 29.09 ± 1.62 and 568.8 ± 35.65; anoxia: 16.62 ± 1.51 and 403.3 ± 30.19 pmoles/gww), which partially returned to pre-anoxic values upon reoxygenation. cGMP levels were significantly elevated by addition of 8-Br-cGMP (a cGMP analogue), but this elevation (154.4 ± 20.89 pmoles/gww), had no effects on the contractility pattern of muscles during normoxia, anoxia or reoxygenation, suggesting that in isolated ventricular muscle, cGMP levels play a minor role in regulating muscle contractility.
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa 13, pp 17 –20 (2002)More Less
Heart disease in pregnancy is an uncommon problem in the developed world, but reaches a high prevalence in poor countries. In South Africa 0.65% of all pregnant women have heart disease, and there is an unacceptably high morbidity and mortality rate (9.5%). Rheumatic heart disease accounts for most of this mortality, mitral stenosis being the commonest lesion. In April 2000 the National Committee on Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths (NCCEMD) reported that close to half of non-obstetric maternal deaths in South Africa were due to cardiac disease. Several preventable factors were identified that precipitated decompensation and could have accounted for this high mortality. Among them, lack of adequate antenatal evaluation, uncontrolled fluid infusion, failure to identify the patient at risk, and failure to recognise the risk of autotransfusion in the postpartum phase, were contributing factors. This report of the problems seeks to address ways in which these difficulties may be rectified.
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa 13, pp 22 –28 (2002)More Less
Extracted from text ... 22 PROF. ANDRIES BRINK Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa Durbanville, W. Cape PROF. WOLE AKANDE Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland PROF. JACK MOODLEY Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, King Edward VIII Hospital and University of Natal; Medical Research Council/University of Natal Pregnancy Hypertension Research Unit DR WILLIAM HAGUE Women's and Children's Hospital, North Adelaide, and Department of Obstetrics, University of Adelaide, South Australia DR DAVID HALL Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Tygerberg Hospital and University of Stellenbosch; Medical Research Council Perinatal Mortality Research Unit DR WILHELM STEYN Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Tygerberg ..
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa 13, pp 29 –34 (2002)More Less
This is a case of necrotising myopericarditis complicated with an acute apical left ventricular aneurysm in a young patient with the history of bronchial asthma and recurrent eosinophilia. Prompt clinical improvement coinciding with normalisation of the blood count in response to steroids was observed. Possible aetiology of hypereosinophilia is discussed.
Preserve trial surprises with unexpected results on LV hypertrophy reduction with calcium channel blockers : drug trends in cardiologySource: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa 13, pp 37 –38 (2002)More Less
Extracted from text ... The PRESERVE Trial1 (Prospective Randomised Enalapril Study Evaluatory Regression of Ventricular Enlargement) was designed to test the hypothesis that enalapril achieves greater LV regression than nifedipine at equivalent blood pressure reduction. This trial provides the largest prospective, randomised, double-blind study to date, comparing cardiac effects of ACE inhibition and calcium channel blockade in patients with hypertensive LV hypertrophy. The most important result of the study was that regimens based on oncedaily administration of enalapril or long-acting nifedipine significantly reduced LV mass index and relative wall thickness during one year of treatment: LV mass index was reduced to the normal range ..
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa 13, pp 38 –40 (2002)More Less
Extracted from text ... Heart failure is a common, distressing and disabling illness and is associated with a worse outcome than in many forms of cancer. For many patients, the prognosis is poor: it is estimated that 50% of patients with heart failure will die within five years. It is estimated that up to 50 million of the 1 000 million people (5%) who inhabit the 47 nations which are members of the European Society of Cardiology may have a heart failurerelated problem.1 It is also a severe burden on healthcare resources. The direct costs of heart failure in developed countries are thought to ..
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa 13, pp 40 –41 (2002)More Less
Extracted from text ... Aspirin and deep vein thrombosis In an effort to prevent pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis after major surgery (and in other highrisk circumstances), many different thromboprophylactic strategies are used. Subcutaneous injections of unfractionated or low molecular weight heparin lower the risk of venous thromboembolism by at least a half while such treatment continues. For practical reasons, however, prophylaxis with heparin (or with mechanical compression methods) is generally stopped before discharge from hospital, even though the risk of thromboembolism may persist for some weeks or months thereafter. Prophylaxis with a simple oral antiplatelet regimen, such as low-dose aspirin, would be easy ..
Multi-centre trial of aspirin highlights increased safety with higher dose : drug trends in cardiologySource: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa 13, pp 42 –43 (2002)More Less
Extracted from text ... 42 High-dose aprotinin reduces transfusion requirements in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, but the safety and effectiveness of smaller doses is unclear. Furthermore, patient selection criteria for optimal use of the drug are not well defined. Seven hundred and four first-time coronary artery bypass grafting patients were randomised to receive one of three doses of aprotinin (high, low and pump-prime only) or placebo. The patients were stratified as to risk of excessive bleeding. All three aprotinin doses were highly effective in reducing bleeding and transfusion requirements.1 Consistent efficacy was not, however, demonstrated in the subgroup of patients at low ..
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa 13 (2002)More Less
Extracted from text ... UCT renames building after the late Professor Chris Barnard (8.11.22 - 2.9.01) In a tribute to the legacy of the late Professor Chris Barnard, the University of Cape Town (UCT) is renaming after him one of the main buildings on its medical school campus. The renaming has been approved by the University's Naming of Buildings Council and was approved by the University Council on 7 November 2001. The building, to be renamed the Chris Barnard Building, was donated to UCT by the South African Mining Industry as a direct result of the Barnard heart transplant. It was unveiled in March ..