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- Volume 15, Issue 5, 2004
Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa - Volume 15, Issue 5, 2004
Volume 15, Issue 5, 2004
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa 15, pp 205 –206 (2004)More Less
Extracted from text ... Most presentations (given by internationally renowned researchers in the field) focused on subcellular and molecular aspects of myocardial injury in ischaemia and heart failure, as well as cardioprotection, many presenters contextualised their work in terms of bridging the gap between the basic sciences and the clinical situation, as indicated below. Although many mechanisms contribute to ischaemic injury, there is now clear evidence that contractile dysfunction during and after myocardial ischaemia is mediated, in part, by changes in myocardial metabolism, as reflected by abnormally high rates of fatty acid oxidation which occurs at the expense of glucose oxidation. Therefore, a new ..
Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia is an important risk factor for vascular disease in subjects with high-molecular weight apo(a) isoforms : cardiovascular topicsSource: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa 15, pp 207 –213 (2004)More Less
<I>Background:</I> Homocyst(e)ine is reported to increase the binding of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] to fibrin, which may increase the thrombogenic effects of Lp(a) in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between homocyst(e)ine and Lp(a) levels and vascular disease risk, and if the relationship depends on the apo(a) isoforms. <br><I>Methods:</I> A case-control study was performed in 91 Caucasian male subjects with vascular disease due to athersclerosis, and in 100 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects. <br><I>Results:</I> Both hyperhomocyst(e)inemia and elevated Lp(a) were significantly more prevalent in patients. Concordant elevated Lp(a) and hyperhomocyst(e)inemia were not associated with increased vascular disease risk (relative odds 2.96; 95% CI: 0.90-9.80), while hyperhomocyst(e)inemia in the absence of elevated Lp(a) was associated with increased vascular disease risk (relative odds 7.20; 95% CI: 2.37-21.91). Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia in individuals with high-molecular weight apo(a) isoforms [smaller apo(a) isoform > S3] was observed to be associated with increased vascular disease risk (relative odds 11.02; 95% CI: 3.54-34.30), while vascular disease risk in subjects with low-molecular weight apo(a) isoforms [smaller apo(a) isoform < S3] was not significantly increased, the relative odds being 1.92; 95% CI: 0.51-7.24. <br><I>Conclusions:</I> We conclude that hyperhomocyst(e)inemia is an important risk factor in individuals with highmolecular weight apo(a) isoforms.
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa 15, pp 215 –219 (2004)More Less
<I>Aim:</I> To determine the risk factors and complications of hypertension, isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) and isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) in Yaounde. <br><I>Methods and Results:</I> Between January and September 1998 we examined 813 consecutive adult patients (46.5% men) in the Yaounde University Teaching Hospital, with special focus on risk factors of hypertension and clinical findings in the cardiovascular system. We measured systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index and plasma glucose, and recorded chest X-ray, electrocardiogram and echocardiogram. Hypertension, ISH and IDH were defined using the WHO-ISH 1999 criteria. After controlling for the confounding effects of age and sex, hypertension was significantly associated with obesity, family history of hypertension, alcohol intake, heart failure, stroke and left ventricular hypertrophy (p < 0.01); smoking was significantly associated with ISH (p = 0.04), and no factor was independently associated with IDH. <br><I>Conclusions:</I> A prevention strategy for hypertension and its resultant complications in Cameroon should include measures aimed at obesity and alcohol consumption, as well as early diagnosis with the institution of effective and affordable therapy.
Author P.A. BrinkSource: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa 15 (2004)More Less
Extracted from text ... 220 H. B?hles, A.C. Sewell ISBN 3-88763-104-8 Medpharm Scientific Publishers Birkenwaldstr 44, D-70191 Stuttgart This book deals with the cardiac manifestations of a number of rare systemic diseases associated with the accumulation of substrate (storage disorders), or deficiencies in energy metabolism. Most of these diseases have received attention through a constellation of systemic signs and symptoms and not because of isolated heart disease. Furthermore, a number of chapters cover diseases with cardiac effects other than muscle, such as valves, coronary arteries and pericardium, which do not fall under the ambit of cardiomyopathy. In Chapter 1, covering the morphological presentation of ..
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa 15, pp 221 –246 (2004)More Less
Extracted from text ... SA HEART ASSOCIATION NATIONAL CONGRESS 6-8 October 2004 ICC, Durban General Cardiology Left ventricular geometric patterns in Nigerians with hypertension seen at Uch Ibadan 223 A Aje, A Adebiyi, OO Oladapo, OS Ogah, A Dada, DB Ojji, AO Falase Can prolonged extreme exercise/physical activity cause heart failure in athletes? Does a normal functioning left 228 ventricle start to fatigue/fail after extreme prolonged physical activity? MY Hassan, TD Noakes, PJ Berlyn The effects of cardioplegia on pulmonary function following coronary artery revascualarisation 231 T McFarlane, R Kleinloog Equivalent blood pressure reduction. with angiotensin II receptor antagonist alone-based therapy compared with 234 ..
New pathophysiological insights explain life-saving benefits of perindopril in coronary artery disease patients : drug trends in cardiologySource: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa 15, pp 248 –249 (2004)More Less
Extracted from text ... 248 Drug Trends New pathophysiological insights explain life-saving benefits of perindopril in coronary artery disease patients The long-acting angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor perindopril (COVERSYL(r)) significantly reduces the risk of cardiovascular death and myocardial infarction in patients with stable coronary artery disease, not only via a reduction in blood pressure, but also by a direct vascular and antiatherosclerotic effect. This is revealed by new results from the EUROPA (EUropean trial on Reduction Of cardiac events with Perindopril in stable coronary Artery disease) study, announced for the first time today at the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) annual congress.1 The blood pressure ..
ACTION with nifedipine GITS (Adalat XL) provides evidence for safety and improved outcome in angina patients : drug trends in cardiologySource: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa 15, pp 249 –251 (2004)More Less
Extracted from text ... ACTION with nifedipine GITS (Adalat XL) provides evidence for safety and improved outcome in angina patients Results from the first long-term trial on the use of long-acting calcium channel blockers (CCBs) in the treatment of patients with stable symptomatic coronary artery disease (ACTION) has shown that while nifedipine GITS did not achieve additional benefits with regard to the primary endpoints, the secondary endpoints for all vascular events and procedures did show benefits. This occurred mainly as a result of the favourable reduction in the rate of development of new overt heart failure and the reduction in the need for coronary ..
CHARM study in CHF patients with impaired LV function reinforces benefits of candesartan cilexetil (Atacand(R)) : drug trends in cardiologySource: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa 15 (2004)More Less
Extracted from text ... 252 Further analysis of the CHARM study focusing on patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and impaired LV function in the CHARM-Alternative trial (patients received candesartan instead of an ACE inhibitor) and CHARMAdded (patients receiving candesartan plus ACE inhibitor) has shown a significant reduction in deaths and CHF hospital admissions in patients receiving this angiotensin-receptor blocker. The overall CHARM programme, announced at the European Society Congress (ESC) last year, had included a third, CHARM-Preserved trial, which investigated CHF patients with uncompromised left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF above 40%). The pre-specified analysis of the 4 576 CHARM patients with heart failure ..
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa 15, pp 254 –255 (2004)More Less
Extracted from text ... Hypertension is by no means a simple condition, but the end-result of a complex interplay between blood pressureregulating mechanisms. As such, hypertensive patients are unlikely to respond adequately to the use of a single therapeutic agent.1, 2 Even at high doses, a normalisation rate of only 20-50% is reported when using a single agent, 3, 4 and at half-maximal levels, the responder rate plummets to 9-10%.5 In patients with diabetes or nephropathy, where lower target blood pressures are needed, even lower normalisation has been achieved. Monotherapy is often discontinued in a disturbingly high percentage of patients.4 In fact, singleagent therapy ..
Teveten(R) (eprosartan) reduces future risk in hypertensive stroke patients : drug trends in cardiologySource: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa 15, pp 255 –256 (2004)More Less
Extracted from text ... The established antihypertensive agent Teveten(r) (eprosartan) has now been shown to offer effective protection against cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients with a previous stroke, over and above that offered by blood pressure reduction. Initial results from the landmark MOSES* study, presented by Professor Joachim Schrader at the XXVI Congress of the European Society of Cardiology in Munich, showed that blood pressure was equally well controlled when hypertensive patients with a history of stroke were treated with either eprosartan-based or nitrendipinebased therapies. However, there was a significant reduction of 20% in the primary endpoint (total mortality and total cardiovascular ..
Significant reduction in heart attacks in patients taking Pfizer's Lipitor : drug trends in cardiologySource: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa 15 (2004)More Less
Extracted from text ... Patients taking the cholesterol-lowering medicine atorvastatin calcium (Lipitor) experienced 47% fewer nonfatal heart attacks compared to patients receiving usual care, according to data presented in the Aggressive Lipid-Lowering Initiation Abates New Cardiac Events (ALLIANCE) at the annual American College of Cardiology meeting in New Orleans. Patients taking atorvastatin in the trial also experienced a 17% reduction in overall negative cardiovascular outcomes including cardiac death, heart attacks, strokes and hospitalisations, compared to patients treated with usual care. Patients treated with usual care received cholesterol-lowering therapies prescribed by their physicians which included lifestyle changes such as modifications in diet, weight loss, exercise ..
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa 15 (2004)More Less
Extracted from text ... Cardio News Forthcoming November 2004 ISBN 072160479X hardback, 2 288 pp, 1 500 illustrations, Saunders. Single volume IE book: R1 095 (save R480), two-volume set R1 775, web access R1 675, book + web access R2 050 (special price until Dec - save R300). The leading authorities in cardiology bring you the silver anniversary edition of the gold standard of cardiology. This new edition now features four-colour text and illustrations, new illustrations and imaging coverage, as well as extensive cross referencing to related issues. Joining Braunwald, Zipes and Libby on this edition is Robert Bonow from Northwestern University. This edition ..