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n Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - Pre-treatment before coronary artery bypass surgery improves post-operative outcomes in moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients : cardiovascular topics
Introduction : Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has traditionally been recognised as a predictor of poorer early outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of different COPD stages, as defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) spirometric criteria, on the early surgical outcomes in patients undergoing primary isolated non-emergency CABG.
Methods : Between January 2008 and April 2012, 1 737 consecutive patients underwent isolated CABG in the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery of Gulhane Military Academy of Medicine; 127 patients with the diagnosis of moderate-risk COPD were operated on. Only 104 patients with available pulmonary function tests and no missing data were included in the study. Two different treatment protocols had been used before and after 2010. Before 2010, no treatment was applied to patients with moderate COPD before the CABG procedure. After 2010, a pre-treatment protocol was initiated. Patients who had undergone surgery between 2008 and 2010 were placed in group 1 (no pre-treatment, n = 51) and patients who had undergone surgery between 2010 and 2012 comprised group 2 (pre-treatment group, n = 53). These two groups were compared according to the postoperative morbidity and mortality rates retrospectively, from medical reports.
Results : The mean ages of the patients in both groups were 62.1 ± 7.6 and 64.5 ± 6.4 years, respectively. Thirty-nine of the patients in group 1 and 38 in group 2 were male. There were similar numbers of risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, renal disease (two patients in each group), previous stroke and myocardial infarction in both groups. The mean ejection fractions of the patients were 53.3 ± 11.5% and 50.2 ± 10.8%, respectively. Mean EuroSCOREs of the patients were 5.5 ± 2.3 and 5.9 ± 2.5, respectively in the groups. The average numbers of the grafts were 3.1 ± 1.0 and 2.9 ± 0.9. Mean extubation times were 8.52 ± 1.3 hours in group 1 and 6.34 ± 1.0 hours in group 2. The numbers of patients who needed pharmacological inotropic support were 12 in group 1 and five in group 2. Duration of hospital stay of the patients was shorter in group 2. While there were 14 patients with post-operative atrial fibrillation (PAF) in group 1, the number of patients with PAF in group 2 was five. Whereas there were seven patients who had pleural effusions requiring drainage in group 1, there were only two in group 2. There were three mortalities in group 1, and one in group 2. There were no sternal infections and sternal dehiscences in either group.
Conclusion : Pre-treatment in moderate-risk COPD patients improved post-operative outcomes while decreasing adverse events and complications. Therefore for patients undergoing elective CABG, we recommend the use of medical treatment.
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