n Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - Prevalence and determinants of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors : data from a population-based, cross-sectional survey in Saint Louis, Senegal : cardiovascular topics
Background : The incidence of cardiovascular disease is growing worldwide and this is of major public health concern. In sub-Saharan Africa, there is a lack of epidemiological data on the prevalence and distribution of risk factors of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors among an urban Senegalese population.
Methods : Using an adaptation of the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk-factor surveillance, we conducted a population-based, cross-sectional survey from 3 to 30 May 2010 on 1 424 participants aged over 15 years. Socio-demographic and behavioural risk factors were collected in step 1. Physical anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were documented in step 2. Blood tests (cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and creatinine levels) were carried out in step 3.
Results : The prevalence of hypertension was 46% (95% CI: 43.4-48%), with a higher prevalence in females (47.9%) than males (41.7%) (p = 0.015), and 50% of these hypertensive were previously undiagnosed. Mean age was 53.6 years (SD: 15.8). In known cases of hypertension, the average length of its evolution was 6 years 9 months (range 1 month to 60 years). Hypertension was significantly associated with age (p = 0.001), socio-professional category (p = 0.003), dyslipidaemia (p < 0.001), obesity (p < 0.001), physical inactivity (p < 0.001), diabetes (p < 0.001) and stroke (p < 0.001).
Conclusion : We found a high prevalence of hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors in this population. There is need of a specific programme for the management and prevention of cardiovascular disease in this population.
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