n Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - Gender and ethnic differences in the control of hyperlipidaemia and other vascular risk factors : insights from the CEntralised Pan-South African survey on tHE Under-treatment of hypercholeSterolaemia (CEPHEUS SA) study : cardiovascular topic

Volume 24, Issue 6
  • ISSN : 1995-1892
  • E-ISSN: 1680-0745



The aim of the CEntralised Pan-South African survey on tHE Under-treatment of hypercholeSterolaemia (CEPHEUS SA) was to evaluate the current use and efficacy of lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs) in urban patients of different ethnicity with hyperlipidaemia, and to identify possible patient characteristics associated with failure to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets. There is little published data on LDL-C attainment from developing countries.

The survey was conducted in 69 study centres in South Africa and recruited consecutive patients who had been prescribed LLDs for at least three months with no dose adjustment for six weeks. All patients provided written consent. One visit was scheduled for data collection, including fasting lipid and glucose, and HbA levels.
Of the 3 001 patients recruited, 2 996 were included in the final analyses; 1 385 subjects were of Caucasian origin (818 male), 510 of African ancestry (168 male), 481 of mixed ancestry (222 male) and 620 of Asian origin (364 male). Only 60.5% of patients on LLDs for at least three months achieved the LDL-C targets recommended by the NCEP ATP III/2004 updated NCEP ATP III guidelines and 52.3% the fourth JETF/South African guidelines. African females were on average younger than females of other ethnic origins, and had the lowest smoking rates but the highest prevalence of obesity, hypertension, the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus (DM), with the worst glycaemic control. Although women were less likely than men to reach goal [OR 0.65 (CI 0.54-0.77), < 0.001 for NCEP ATP III guidelines and OR 0.76 (CI 0.64-0.91), < 0.003 for fourth JETF guidelines], women of African ancestry were just as likely not to reach goal as their Caucasian counterparts.
The results of this survey highlight the sub-optimal lipid control achieved in many South African patients, and profile important gender and ethnic differences. Control of cardiovascular disease risk factors across gender and ethnic groups remains poor.

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