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n Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - Awareness of hypertension and factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension in Sudanese adults : cardiovascular topic
Background : The incidence of hypertension (HTN) has increased rapidly in the Sudan in the last few years. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of uncontrolled HTN and the risk factors associated with it in Sudanese adults.
Methods : This study was cross sectional. Data were collected using structured questionnaires filled in during interviews with subjects visiting referral clinics in Khartoum, the capital city of Sudan. Blood pressure (BP) was measured using a digital sphygmomanometer. A digital balance was used for determination of body weight and a traditional cloth tape measure was used for measuring height, for calculation of body mass index.
Results : This study included 200 subjects, 46% male and 54% female. In the whole study, 82% of subjects (p < 0.001) were on hypertension drug treatment. Of these, 64% had their BP controlled to normal standards set by the World Health Organistion (< 140/90 mmHg). The prevalence of uncontrolled BP was significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males (61%) compared to females (15%). When the risk factors of HTN were considered, 54% of the subjects had a positive family history of HTN and 52% were smokers. Uncontrolled BP was found to be significantly (p < 0.001) higher in smoking males (43%) compared to females (4%). It was also high in people with higher education (55%) and workers (41%). In these groups, when genders were considered separately, uncontrolled hypertension was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in males than females with higher education (67 and 40%, respectively), and in workers (86 and 10%, respectively). Uncontrolled HTN was associated with overweight and obesity in 45 and 29% of the subjects, respectively. Most of the interviewed subjects were not aware of the consequences of HTN and its associated risk factors.
Conclusions : Uncontrolled HTN was associated with risk factors of HTN and lifestyle, and was more prominent in the male gender. The ignorance of the interviewed subjects about HTN, its associated risk factors, changes in lifestyle and adherence to taking the medication may have been a major factor in the prevalence of uncontrolled HTN.
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