Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - Volume 24, Issue 7, 2013
Volumes & issues
Volume 24, Issue 7, 2013
Radiofrequency ablation of the great saphenous vein in an elderly patient with co-morbid disease : online article - case reportSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24, pp 1 –2 (2013)More Less
An 86-year-old male patient with hypertension, Parkinsonism, benign prostatic hyperplasia, cataract and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had a history of coronary bypass surgery in two veins due to anterior myocardial infarction one year earlier. He presented with pain and feelings of paresthesia below the knee of his left leg, and had fallen twice. He had used compressions and venoprotective medication for two years and had also received physiotherapy but it had not alleviated the symptoms. He had varicose dilatations in the left leg and pigmentation and a recovered venous ulcer scar were present on the medial malleolus. The patient was classed as grade 4 according to the CEAP classification. Because there was no deficiency in the superficial femoral and popliteal veins, the patient was taken for endovenous ablation. He had no pain or sensation of heaviness in the legs on postoperative day 10, and the first, third and sixth months of check up. Endovenous ablation is a procedure that increases the quality of life and comfort in elderly patients, with minimal pain. Radiofrequency catheter procedures have proven to be more successful in patients of all age groups than procedures such as standard surgery and foam therapy.
Reports from the American Diabetes Association's 73rd scientific sessions, 21-25 June 2013, Chicago, Illinois : drug trends in cardiologySource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24 (2013)More Less
Intensive HbA1c management in type 1 diabetes sees persistent benefit
New therapeutic targets for type 2 diabetes
Look AHEAD: lifestyle intervention in type 2 diabetes offers microvascular benefit but does not lower risk of cardiovascular disease
Exercise may be the best medicine for diabetes patients
New perspectives on type 2 diabetes risk factors
Analysis of mortality in low-risk patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting : cardiovascular topicSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24, pp 247 –250 (2013)More Less
Aim : The aims of this study were to determine the early mortality rate in low-risk coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients and examine the causes of death, to identify problems that could be avoided in future surgeries.
Methods : All low-risk patients (EuroSCORE ≤ 2) who died after CABG were included. Their peri-operative information was meticulously studied by internal and independent external reviewers to identify causes of death, which were classified as: cardiac or non-cardiac; and a further division as: (1) non-preventable, (2) preventable (technical error), and (3) preventable (system error).
Results : Early mortality was 0.93% (24/2 570). Eleven patients (45.8%) were classified as preventable deaths. In six of them the main problem was identified as graft thrombosis, which was secondary to a technical error of either the harvesting or anastomosis of the left internal mammarian artery. There were also five system errors identified as delays in the treatment of an identified and potentially reversible problem.
Conclusions : Correction of technical and system errors, such as harvesting of the left internal mammarian artery, haemostasis during surgery, and establishing standard protocols for the transfer of patients from ward to intensive care units will eventually lead to improvement in both the quality of care and patient outcomes, even in low-risk groups.
A retrospective analysis of factors influencing re-operation in patients undergoing mechanical valve replacement : cardiovascular topicsSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24, pp 251 –254 (2013)More Less
Background : We aimed to determine the possible factors leading to re-operation in patients undergoing mechanical valve replacement and to investigate the relationship between valvular thrombus formation and mean platelet volume.
Methods : The medical records of 43 patients with mechanical valve implantation, who were admitted to the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery of Dr Siyami Ersek Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Training and Research Hospital between 2000 and 2005 were analysed retrospectively. Data recorded included demographic characteristics, valve type, size and location, implantation position, warfarin use, INR level, additional cardiac intervention, presence of left atrial thrombus, valvular thrombus, pannus formation, perivalvular leak, left atrial aneurysm, platelet count and mean platelet volume (MPV), bleeding after the primary surgery and/or revision of surgery due to other reasons, valve protection, aortic root expansion, presence of valve calcification and infective endocarditis, pre- and postoperative rhythm pattern, brand name of prosthesis, distance of the patient's house from a cardiac surgery centre, and concomitant noncardiac systemic diseases.
Results : Mean age was 49.3 years (range 19-78 years). Of the patients, 51% (n = 22) were males and 49% (n = 21) were females. The re-operation mortality was 11.6%. Age, gender, valve type, brand of valve prosthesis, and implantation position were not risk factors for re-operation. The MPV was higher and statistically significant in patients with valvular thrombus during re-operation (p < 0.001). MPV was determined to be an independent risk factor with 85% sensitivity and 87% specificity.
Conclusion : MPV and INR levels should be closely monitored when designing individualised postoperative medical treatment for patients undergoing heart valve re-operation.
Does vitamin C or its combination with vitamin E improve radial artery endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in patients awaiting coronary artery bypass surgery? : cardiovascular topicsSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24, pp 255 –259 (2013)More Less
Background : We evaluated the vasodilatory effects of two antioxidants, vitamins C (ascorbic acid) and E (α-tocopherol), on radial artery and endothelium-dependent responses in patients awaiting coronary artery bypass surgery.
Methods : The study was performed in three groups. The first group took 2 g of vitamin C orally (n = 31, vitamin C group), the second group took 2 g of vitamin C with 600 mg of vitamin E orally (n = 31, vitamins C + E group), and the third group took no medication (n = 31, control group). After baseline measurements were taken of the radial artery lumen diameter, flow volume and lumen area in the non-dominant radial artery, occlusion was maintained for five minutes with a pressure cuff placed around the arm. The measurements were taken again at the time of deflating the cuff, and 60 seconds later. The measurements were repeated after medication in two of the groups and after placebo in the third group.
Results : We compared values of the vitamin C group with those of the vitamins C + E group, and found that the latter were higher than those of the vitamin C group but not statistically significant. In the control group, there was no statistical difference.
Conclusion : Vitamin C or its combination with vitamin E significantly enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in the radial circulation of patients with coronary artery disease. Its combination with vitamin E was superior to vitamin C administration alone for endothelial enhancement but this difference was not statistically significant. We hypothesised that vitamin C or its combination with vitamin E may be used as antioxidants for arterial graft patency in patients undergoing coronary artery surgery.
Effectiveness of prophylactic levosimendan in high-risk valve surgery patients : cardiovascular topicsSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24, pp 260 –264 (2013)More Less
Background : Levosimendan has anti-ischaemic effects, improves myocardial contractility and increases systemic, pulmonary and coronary vasodilatation. These properties suggest potential advantages in high-risk cardiac valve surgery patients where cardioprotection would be valuable. The present study investigated the peri-operative haemodynamic effects of prophylactic levosimendan infusion in cardiac valve surgery patients with low ejection fraction and/or severe pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Methods : Between May 2006 and July 2007, 20 consecutive patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (systolic pulmonary artery pressure ≥ 60 mmHg) and/or low ejection fraction (< 50%) who underwent valve surgery in our clinic were included in the study and randomised into two groups. Levosimendan was administered to 10 patients in group I and not to the 10 patients in the control group. Cardiac output (CO), cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) were recorded for each patient preoperatively and for 24 hours following the operation.
Results : CO and CI values were higher in the levosimendan group during the study period (p < 0.05). MPAP and PVR values were significantly lower in the levosimendan group for the 24-hour period (p < 0.05) and SVR values were significantly lower after 24 hours in both groups. When clinical results were considered, no difference in favour of levosimendan was detected regarding the mortality and morbidity rates between the groups.
Conclusion : Levosimendan improved the haemodynamics in cardiac valve surgery patients with low ejection fraction and/or severe pulmonary arterial hypertension, and facilitated weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass in such high-risk patients when started as a prophylactic agent.
Association of homocysteinaemia with hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and obesity : cardiovascular topicSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24, pp 265 –269 (2013)More Less
Aim : Hyperhomocysteinaemia and the metabolic syndrome are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. We investigated whether there is a link between the metabolic syndrome or its components and homocysteine levels in a population without cardiovascular disease.
Methods : From the population sample of 382 participants (286 females and 96 males) we isolated those reflecting the metabolic syndrome and determined their homocysteine levels. We then evaluated the association of homocysteine with hyperglycaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and obesity, using a significance level of p = 0.05. Enzymatic methods were used for all biochemical parameters.
Results : We found the statistical relationship between homocysteine and the metabolic syndrome as follows: hyperglycaemia (p = 0.175), hypertriglyceridaemia (p = 0.442), hypercholesterolaemia (p = 0.480), obesity (p = 0.080); and hypertension: systolic pressure (p = 0.002) and diastolic pressure (p = 0.033).
Conclusion : We found no statistically significant association between baseline plasma homocysteine levels and the metabolic syndrome, except for hypertension.
Increased carotid intima-media thickness associated with high hs-CRP levels is a predictor of unstable coronary artery disease : cardiovascular topicSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24, pp 270 –273 (2013)More Less
Increased values of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) are predictors of acute coronary events. We analysed the link between CIMT and hs-CRP in cases with coronary artery disease (CAD). From 1 January to 30 June 2012, we evaluated 43 patients with acute coronary syndrome (group A), 50 patients with stable coronary artery disease (group B) and 50 healthy volunteers (group C). All were analysed for CIMT and hs-CRP levels. CIMT values were higher in groups A and B (0.94 ± 0.21 mm, 0.89 ± 0.19 mm, respectively) and lower in group C (0.64 ± 0.09 mm), and this was statistically significant (p < 0.0001). However the values of hs-CRP were higher in group A (1.87 ± 0.36 mg/l) and lower in groups B and C (1.07 ± 0.28 mg/l, 0.97 ± 0.45 mg/l, respectively) and this was also statistically significant (p < 0.0001).
Efficacy and safety of sirolimus-eluting stents versus bare-metal stents in coronary artery disease patients with diabetes : a meta-analysis : cardiovascular topicSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24, pp 274 –279 (2013)More Less
Objective : To compare by meta-analysis the efficacy and safety of sirolimus-eluting and bare-metal stents in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with diabetes.
Methods : PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from 1971 to 2012. Data on the efficacy and safety of sirolimus-eluting and bare-metal stents in patients with diabetes were collected. A meta-analysis was then performed on a total of 1 259 CAD patients with diabetes from six studies. The odds ratio (OR) was used for comparison. Subgroup analysis was performed according to the sample size, year of study, subjects' geographic area and study method.
Results : Compared with those in the bare-metal stent group (BMS), the subjects in the sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) group had a reduced risk for major cardiac events [OR 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 024-0.74, p < 0.01] and target-lesion revascularisation (OR 0.26, 95% CI: 0.11-0.59, p < 0.01). There was no difference for myocardial infarction (OR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.61-1.40, p > 0.05) or mortality (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 0.74-1.92, p > 0.05). Subgroup analysis showed a significant difference for overall risk of major cardiac events between SES and BMS when the sample size was ≤ 90 (OR 0.28, 95% CI: 0.16-0.48, p < 0.01), when it was a randomised control trial (RCT) (OR 0.28, 95% CI: 0.19-0.42, p < 0.01), or when it was performed on European subjects (OR 0.45, 95% CI: 0.27-0.77, p < 0.01). The sensitivity was not different when one study was removed at a time.
Conclusion : Our study confirmed that SES are safer and more effective than BMS in CAD patients with diabetes, as far as major cardiac events are concerned.
Prevalence and significance of early repolarisation in a black African population : data of 246 individuals with cardiovascular morbidity : cardiovascular topicSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24, pp 280 –285 (2013)More Less
Background : Early repolarisation (ER) is commonly seen on electrocardiograms (ECG). Recent reports have described the relationship between ER and sudden cardiac death (SCD). The prevalence and significance of ER have not been studied in black Africans.
Methods : We matched clinical and ECG records of subjects over 18 years of age who consulted a cardiac unit in two medical centres of Douala, Cameroon. A questionnaire focusing on past history of syncope or family history of sudden unexplained death (SUD) was filled in by each subject. A 12-lead ECG was recorded by a trained nurse and analysed by two independent physicians.
Results : Of the 752 ECGs recorded, we studied 246 index cases. The mean age of subjects was 45 ± 16 years and 53% were female. Almost 57% had hypertension, 41% had palpitations and 18% reported a history of syncope. ER pattern was found in 20% [slurring in three (3%), notching in 13% and both in three (7%)]. ER subjects were younger than those without (41 ± 16 vs 49 ± 16 years, p = 0.0048). Lead localisation was predominantly the laterals for the slurring pattern, whereas the inferior and lateral leads were equally involved for the notching pattern. Negative T waves in the infero-lateral leads were associated with ER (p = 0.00025). Among the subjects with syncope, 41% displayed ER and 13% did not have ER (p = 0.00014). The notching pattern seemed to be associated with syncope (p = 0.00011).
Conclusion : Early repolarisation is frequent in black Africans, especially in the setting of cardiovascular morbidity. Early repolarisation may be associated with a past history of syncope, especially the notched pattern.
Diagnostic and prognostic values of B-type natriuretic peptides (BNP) and N-terminal fragment brain natriuretic peptides (NT-pro-BNP) : review articleSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24, pp 286 –289 (2013)More Less
B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a member of a four-natriuretic peptide family that shares a common 17-peptide ring structure. The N-terminal fragment (NT-pro-BNP) is biologically inert, but both are secreted in the plasma in equimolar quantities and both have been evaluated for use in the management of congestive heart failure. BNP and NT-pro-BNP are frequently used in the diagnosis of congestive heart failure and distinguishing between patients with dyspnoea of cardiac or pulmonary origin. Values of NT-pro-BNP are affected by age or the presence of one or several co-morbidities such as chronic renal failure, type 2 diabetes, and acute coronary syndrome. 'Normal' values of these peptides also vary depending on the type of test used. The performance characteristics of these tests vary depending on the patients on whom they are used and the manufacturer. For this reason, the determination of reference values for this peptide represents such a challenge.
Saxagliptin demonstrates no increased risk for cardiovascular death, heart attack or stroke in the SAVOR cardiovascular outcomes trial : drug trends in cardiologyAuthor G. HardySource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24 (2013)More Less
Results presented at the recent 2013 European Society of Cardiology congress in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and published in the New England Journal of Medicine contribute to on-going questions concerning the safety of many diabetes treatments, particularly regarding the impact of their use on risk of cardiovascular death, heart attack or stroke. SAVOR (Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in patients with diabetes mellitus) is the largest cardiovascular outcomes trial to study a diverse population of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients at high risk for cardiovascular events.