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n Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - The ADVANCE cardiovascular risk model and current strategies for cardiovascular disease risk evaluation in people with diabetes
Purpose: To critically examine existing approaches to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk evaluation in people with diabetes, and discuss the use of accurate and validated absolute CVD risk tools as an appropriate basis for CVD prevention in people with diabetes.
Methods: This was a narrative review using evidence from the ADVANCE study and all relevant publications identified via PubMed MEDLINE.
Results: There is sufficient evidence that diabetes does not confer a CVD risk equivalent to that in non-diabetic people with existing CVD in all circumstances. In people with diabetes, CVD risk follows a gradient. Reliably capturing this gradient depends on an adequate combination of several risk factors. Many global CVD risk tools applicable to people with diabetes have been developed. Those derived from older cohorts are less accurate in contemporary populations and many newer tools have not been tested. The ADVANCE risk engine, recently developed from the large multinational ADVANCE study, showed acceptable performance on the ADVANCE population and largely outperformed the popular Framingham risk equation when tested on the multinational DIAB-HYCAR cohort of people with type 2 diabetes.
Conclusions: The high-risk status conferred by diabetes does not preclude estimation of absolute CVD risk using tools such as the ADVANCE risk engine and its use as the basis for initiating and intensifying CVD preventative measures. Adopting such an accurate and validated tool will likely improve prescriptions and outcomes of diabetes care.
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