Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - Volume 25, Issue 2, 2014
Volumes & issues
Volume 25, Issue 2, 2014
Unusual perforation of the left ventricle during radio-frequency catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardia : online article - case reportSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 25, pp 1 –4 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5830/CVJA-2013-087More Less
Cardiac perforation during catheter-based radiofrequency ablation procedures is relatively uncommon but potentially fatal if tamponade ensues. This complication should be promptly recognised. We present a case of incomplete perforation of the left ventricle with transient ST-segment elevation in leads V1 to V3 during catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia. Complete perforation was avoided because of rapid diagnosis by the detection of subtle changes in electrode potentials and by performing angiography via an externally irrigated ablation catheter lumen.
Author Paul A. BrinkSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 25 (2014)More Less
As I expertly skirt some potholes in a town centre through which we are travelling, I ponder the upcoming edition of the journal. An editorial needs to be written and time is running short. I cannot afford to lose a tyre or worse, a wheel or axle today. In my head I peruse the articles while being mindful of the road.
Comparison of estimates of left ventricular ejection fraction obtained from gated blood pool imaging, different software packages and cameras : cardiovascular topicSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 25, pp 44 –49 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5830/CVJA-2013-082More Less
Objective : To determine how two software packages, supplied by Siemens and Hermes, for processing gated blood pool (GBP) studies should be used in our department and whether the use of different cameras for the acquisition of raw data influences the results.
Methods : The study had two components. For the first component, 200 studies were acquired on a General Electric (GE) camera and processed three times by three operators using the Siemens and Hermes software packages. For the second part, 200 studies were acquired on two different cameras (GE and Siemens). The matched pairs of raw data were processed by one operator using the Siemens and Hermes software packages.
Results : The Siemens method consistently gave estimates that were 4.3% higher than the Hermes method (p < 0.001). The differences were not associated with any particular level of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). There was no difference in the estimates of LVEF obtained by the three operators (p = 0.1794). The reproducibility of estimates was good. In 95% of patients, using the Siemens method, the SD of the three estimates of LVEF by operator 1 was ≤ 1.7, operator 2 was ≤ 2.1 and operator 3 was ≤ 1.3. The corresponding values for the Hermes method were ≤ 2.5, ≤ 2.0 and ≤ 2.1. There was no difference in the results of matched pairs of data acquired on different cameras (p = 0.4933).
Conclusion : Software packages for processing GBP studies are not interchangeable. The report should include the name and version of the software package used. Wherever possible, the same package should be used for serial studies. If this is not possible, the report should include the limits of agreement of the different packages. Data acquisition on different cameras did not influence the results.
An echocardiographic study of infective endocarditis, with special reference to patients with HIV : cardiovascular topicSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 25, pp 50 –57 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5830/CVJA-2013-084More Less
Objective : The aim was to describe the echocardiographic features of patients with infective endocarditis (IE), and to compare the manifestations of IE in HIV-positive versus HIV-negative patients.
Methods : The study was prospective in nature and screened patients referred to Inkosi Albert Luthuli Hospital (IALCH) with suspected IE between 2004 and 2007. Only patients with a definite diagnosis of IE according to the modified Duke criteria were enrolled for the purpose of the study. Inkosi Albert Luthuli hospital is an 842-bed tertiary referral centre, serving a KwaZulu-Natal population of 10 million people, who are of various races.
Results : During this period, 91 patients were screened for IE. Seventy-seven (HIV infected, n = 17) satisfied the criteria for a definite diagnosis of IE. Blood cultures were positive in 46% of cases. The commonest organism was S aureus. Most patients had advanced valve disruption with heart failure and high peri-operative mortality. The clinical profile in the HIV-infected patients was similar to the that of the non-infected patients. The prevalence of echocardiographic complications (abscesses, aneurysms, perforations, fistulae and chordal ruptures) was 50.6% in the whole group. Except for the presence of leaflet aneurysms and root abscesses in four advanced (CD4 counts < 250 /mm3) HIV-infected cases, complications were not more frequent in the HIV-infected group.
Conclusion : There was a high rate of culture-negative cases in this study, probably related to prior antibiotic usage; in this setting the modified Duke criteria have diagnostic limitations. No significant differences in the clinical presentation of infective endocarditis were noted between HIV-infected and HIV-negative patients.
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 25, pp 58 –62 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5830/CVJA-2014-002More Less
Objective : This study aimed to evaluate the aetiology, spectrum, course and outcomes of neonates with arrhythmias observed in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit from 2007 to 2012.
Methods : Neonates with rhythm problems were included. The results of electrocardiography (ECG), Holter ECG, echocardiography and biochemical analysis were evaluated. The long-term results of follow up were reviewed.
Results : Forty-five patients were male (68%) and 21 (32%) were female. Fifty-five patients (83.3%) were term, 11 (16.6%) were preterm, and 34% were diagnosed in the prenatal period. Twenty cases (30.3%) had congenital heart disease. Twenty-three patients (34.8%) were diagnosed during the foetal period. The most common arrhythmias were supraventricular ectopic beats and supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) at 39.3 and 22.7%, respectively. SVT recurred in five patients after the neonatal period.
Conclusion : Supraventricular ectopic beats and SVT were the most common arrhythmias during the neonatal period. Although the prognosis of arrhythmias in the neonatal period is relatively good, regular monitoring is required.
Behcet's disease and cardiovascular involvement : our experience of asymptomatic Behcet's patients : cardiovascular topicSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 25, pp 63 –66 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5830/CVJA-2014-003More Less
Behcet's syndrome is a systemic inflammatory disease associated with vasculitis, and arterial, venous and cardiac disorders. Thirty-eight Behcet's disease patients were examined prospectively with echocardiography, ultrasonography and computed tomography, and coagulation parameters were determined. Deep venous insufficiency was found in 16 patients, venous thrombosis in seven, one patient had iliac artery stenosis, three had carotid arterial intimal proliferation, two patients had aortic annulus dilatation, six had aortic valve insufficiency, and three had mitral valve insufficiency. None had coagulation defects. To decrease morbidity and mortality rates, a multidisciplinary approach is important for early diagnosis of cardiovascular involvement in Behcet's disease.
Effects of topical hypothermia on postoperative inflammatory markers in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery : cardiovascular topicSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 25, pp 67 –72 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5830/CVJA-2014-005More Less
Background : We aimed to examine the effects of topical hypothermia on inflammatory markers in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.
Methods : Fifty patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass surgery were included the study. They were randomised to two groups. Mild hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (28-32°C) was performed on both groups using standardised anaesthesiology and surgical techniques. Furthermore, topical cooling with 4°C saline was performed on patients in group I. We recorded peri-operative and intra-operative results of blood samples, pre-operative and postoperative outcomes of electrocardiography and echocardiography, diaphragm levels on X-ray, and the necessity of positive inotropic medication and intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP).
Results : Time-dependent changes in blood samples were compared between the two groups. The changes on complement 3 (C3) and TNF-α levels were more significant in group I than group II (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). Spontaneous restoration rate of sinus rhythm was higher in group II than group I (80 vs 32%, p < 0.01). Atrial fibrillation was seen in six patients in group I and one patient in group II (p < 0.05). IABP was performed on four patients (16%) in group I (p < 0.05). Diaphragmatic paralysis was seen in seven patients in group I but not in group II (p < 0.01). Partial pericardiotomy rates were compared within the groups but there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). One patient in group I died on the 18th postoperative day, but operative mortality rate was not statistically significant between the two groups (p > 0.05).
Conclusions : Topical hypothermia had a negative impact on inflammatory markers and postoperative morbidities.
Intra-uterine growth restriction as a risk factor for hypertension in children six to 10 years old : cardiovascular topicSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 25, pp 73 –77 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5830/CVJA-2014-009More Less
Introduction : Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) is present in about 3-10% of live-born newborns and it is as high as 20-30% in developing countries. Since the 1990s, it has been known that abnormalities during foetal growth may result in cardiovascular disease, including hypertension in adulthood.
Methods : This study evaluated blood pressure parameters (using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring) in children aged six to 10 years old, born as small for gestational age (SGA), and compared them to their healthy peers born as appropriate for gestational age (AGA).
Results : In the SGA group, an abnormal blood pressure level (prehypertension or hypertension) was present significantly more often than in the AGA group (50 vs 16%, p < 0.01). This relationship also occurred in association with the type of IUGR (asymmetric p < 0.01, symmetric p < 0.05).
Conclusion : In SGA children, abnormal blood pressure values occurred more frequently than in AGA children.
Impact of prehypertension on left ventricular mass and QT dispersion in adult black Nigerians : cardiovascular topicSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 25, pp 78 –82 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5830/CVJA-2014-010More Less
Background : Prehypertension has been associated withtarget-organ damage. This study sought to determine theimpact of prehypertension (PHT) on QT dispersion and leftventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in adult black Nigerians.
Methods : One hundred and one subjects with office blood pressure (BP) < 140/90 mmHg were categorised according to their office BP into normotensive (normal BP < 120/80 mmHg, n = 57) and prehypertensive (prehypertensive BP 120-139/80-89 mmHg, n = 44) groups. Echocardiography and electrocardiography (ECG) were performed on the subjects.
Results : Thirty-four males aged 53.65 ± 16.33 years and 67 females aged 52.42 ± 12.00 years were studied. The mean QT interval dispersion (QTd) of the normotensive (38.96 ± 11.06 ms) and prehypertensive (38.41 ± 11.81 ms) groups were similar (p = 0.81). Prehypertensive subjects had higher left ventricular mass (LVM) (165.75 ± 33.21 vs 144.54 ± 35.55 g, p = 0.024), left ventricular mass index 1 (LVMI-1) (91.65 ± 16.84 vs 80.45 ± 18.65 g/m2, p = 0.021) and left ventricular mass index 2 (LVMI-2) (54.96 ± 10.84 vs 47.51 ± 12.00 g/m2.7, p = 0.017). QTd was independent of echocardiographic and electrocardiographic LVH (p > 0.05).
Conclusion : Compared with normotension, prehypertension is associated with higher LVM but similar QTd. This suggests that structural remodelling precedes electrical remodelling in prehypertension.
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 25, pp 83 –85 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5830/CVJA-2014-007More Less
Sulphonylureas (SUs) are oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs) that were introduced more than 60 years ago. Clinicians are familiar with their use and they remain extensively used. However, the SU class is associated with adverse effects of weight gain and hypoglycaemia. In addition, their effects on cardiovascular events remain contentious. Newer classes of anti-diabetic agents have been developed and these agents are weight neutral (di-peptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors), while others reduce weight (glucagon-like peptide analogues and sodium glucose co-transporter inhibitors). Furthermore, the newer agents are less likely to cause hypoglycaemia and have a potentially better cardiovascular safety profile. However, the newer agents are more costly than SUs and their long-term safety is unknown. It is therefore likely that SUs will continue to be used, and more so in resource-limited settings. One may mitigate the adverse effects of weight gain and hypoglycaemia associated with the SU class by using members within this class that are less probable to cause these adverse effects. Furthermore, the specific SU must be used at the lowest effective therapeutic dose. In patients at high risk of SU-induced hypoglycaemic episodes (frail, clinically significant renal impairment), or patients in whom hypoglycaemic episodes may have devastating effects (bus drivers), newer anti-diabetic agents may be a justifiable alternative option.
Adverse effects of ethyl esters or oxidation products in omega-3 preparations? : letter to the editorSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 25, pp 86 –87 (2014)More Less
Cryoballoon ablation for atrial fibrillation is now possible in South Africa : drug trends in cardiologyAuthor Anne HahnSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 25 (2014)More Less
Dr Razeen Gopal, head of the Mediclinic Panorama electrophysiology laboratory, recently discussed various successful procedures performed in their cardiac unit over the past three years that have radically changed the lifestyle of patients with serious cardiac conditions. 'Over 1 000 people, including children, have benefitted from the advances in complex ablation procedures as the unit has become established as a centre of excellence, keeping pace with what is happening in the rest of the world', he said.
Bayer's Xarelto® is approved in South Africa across five additional indications - advertorial : drug trends in cardiologySource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 25, pp 90 –92 (2014)More Less