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n Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - Ambulatory blood pressure profiles in a subset of HIV-positive patients pre and post antiretroviral therapy : cardiovascular topic
Objectives : Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with renal disease and increased cardiovascular risk. The relationship between HIV and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) non-dipping status, a risk factor for cardiovascular events and target-organ damage, has never been assessed in South Africa. Study objectives were to establish the prevalence of chronic kidney disease, and assess the ABP profile in asymptomatic HIV-positive clinic out-patients.
Methods : This was a prospective cohort study. Office blood pressure (BP), urinary microalbumin-creatinine ratio, urine dipsticks, serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were measured at baseline and six months after ART initiation. A subset of HIV-positive subjects and an HIV-negative control group underwent 24-hour ABP monitoring.
Results : No patient had an eGFR < 60 ml/min, three patients (4.7%) had microalbuminuria and one had macroalbuminuria. Mean office systolic BP was 111 ± 14 mmHg at baseline and increased by 5 mmHg to 116 ± 14 mmHg (p = 0.05) at six months. This increase was not confirmed by ABP monitoring. In the HIV-positive and -negative patients, the prevalences of non-dipping were 80 and 52.9%, respectively (p = 0.05, odds ratio = 3.56, 95% CI: 0.96-13.13). No relationship between dipping status and ART usage was found.
Conclusion : The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was lower than anticipated. HIV infection was associated with an ambulatory non-dipping status, which suggests an underlying dysregulation of the cardiovascular system. In the short term, ART does not seem to improve loss of circadian rhythm.
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