n Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - Hypertensive retinopathy and its association with cardiovascular, renal and cerebrovascular morbidity in Congolese patients : cardiovascular topic

Volume 25, Issue 5
  • ISSN : 1995-1892
  • E-ISSN: 1680-0745



Signs indicating hypertensive retinopathy can help determine the extent of hypertensive cardiovascular, renal and cerebrovascular damage.

To study the association between hypertensive retinopathy and cardiovascular, renal and cerebrovascular changes, and to determine the predictors of hypertensive retinopathy in Congolese patients.
A total of 159 hypertensive subjects (mean age: 58.9 ± 13.2 years) were enrolled from the cardiology out-patient clinic. Retinopathy grade was assessed on direct ophthalmoscopy. Hypertensive cardiovascular, renal and cerebrovascular changes were indicated by left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and stroke, respectively.
Hypertensive retinopathy was present in 83.6% of the patients (grade 1: 42.1%; grade 2: 11.3%; grade 3: 23.3%; grade 4: 6.9%). There was no association between hypertensive retinopathy and the presence or absence of LVH (86.5 vs 73.3%, χ2 = 1.53, = 0.21), chronic kidney disease (89.3 vs 83.3%, χ2 = 0.12, = 0.73) or stroke (85.7 vs 83.2%, χ2 > 0.001, = 0.99). On multivariate logistic regression, CKD was the most significant predictor of severe hypertensive retinopathy, with an odds ratio of 4.4.
No association was found between hypertensive retinopathy and LVH, CKD or stroke. CKD was the most significant predictor of hypertensive retinopathy and there was a tendency toward increased risk of target-organ damage among patients with advanced hypertensive retinopathy.

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