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n Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - Hypertensive retinopathy and its association with cardiovascular, renal and cerebrovascular morbidity in Congolese patients : cardiovascular topic
Background : Signs indicating hypertensive retinopathy can help determine the extent of hypertensive cardiovascular, renal and cerebrovascular damage.
Objectives : To study the association between hypertensive retinopathy and cardiovascular, renal and cerebrovascular changes, and to determine the predictors of hypertensive retinopathy in Congolese patients.
Methods : A total of 159 hypertensive subjects (mean age: 58.9 ± 13.2 years) were enrolled from the cardiology out-patient clinic. Retinopathy grade was assessed on direct ophthalmoscopy. Hypertensive cardiovascular, renal and cerebrovascular changes were indicated by left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and stroke, respectively.
Results : Hypertensive retinopathy was present in 83.6% of the patients (grade 1: 42.1%; grade 2: 11.3%; grade 3: 23.3%; grade 4: 6.9%). There was no association between hypertensive retinopathy and the presence or absence of LVH (86.5 vs 73.3%, χ2 = 1.53, p = 0.21), chronic kidney disease (89.3 vs 83.3%, χ2 = 0.12, p = 0.73) or stroke (85.7 vs 83.2%, χ2 > 0.001, p = 0.99). On multivariate logistic regression, CKD was the most significant predictor of severe hypertensive retinopathy, with an odds ratio of 4.4.
Conclusion : No association was found between hypertensive retinopathy and LVH, CKD or stroke. CKD was the most significant predictor of hypertensive retinopathy and there was a tendency toward increased risk of target-organ damage among patients with advanced hypertensive retinopathy.
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