Child Abuse Research in South Africa - Volume 13, Issue 2, 2012
Volume 13, Issue 2, 2012
Source: Child Abuse Research in South Africa 13, pp 1 –12 (2012)More Less
The underlying aim of this study was to determine to what extent double AIDS orphans (high school learners in the eastern part of the Free State Province) are victims of societal abuse. Three measuring instruments were employed. First, the Life Stressors and Social Resources Inventory (LISRES-Y) was used to investigate the stressors and resources in the participants' environment. Second, the Brief COPE Scale was administered to ascertain the nature of their coping skills. Third, a self-compiled biographical questionnaire provided information on demographic variables. A mixed-method design was used to gather demographic data. The study confirms that double AIDS orphans are exposed to significant social stressors which would meet the definition of societal abuse. There were a number of statistically significant correlations between the LISRES-Y and coping strategies. The conclusion reached was that the nature of stressors confronting participants and the resources available to them determined the coping strategies that were likely to be used. The qualitative data revealed that the coping strategies include both positive (turning to religion and relatives) and negative (prostitution and drug smuggling elements. Shortcomings of the research are discussed and recommendations made.
Author Dalena VogelSource: Child Abuse Research in South Africa 13, pp 13 –21 (2012)More Less
In his last writings Freud said that trauma in early life affects all vulnerable humans because the ego is "feeble, immature and incapable of resistance" (Freud in Solomon & Siegel 2003:110). Literature (Phillips 2010) confirms that children who were exposed to abuse or neglect need to improve their self-concepts, develop new goals and practise and develop relational skills. The aim of this study was to introduce group therapy as method to heal the body and the mind after experiences of trauma and to provide guidelines towards understanding the needs of girls exposed to dysfunctional and abusive families in preventing a cycle of disruptive behaviour. In this research individual therapy sessions were enhanced by therapeutic group work in preventing a cycle of disruptive behaviour.
The process of children identifying with the aggressor when there was family violence is a recurring theme in family abuse research. Female learners between 10 - 12 years (late childhood to early adolescence) were selected for this study. They were identified by their teachers because of behavioural and learning problems and referred for psychological counselling. An explanatory case study approach was used in an attempt to describe the depth of experiences of these girls, and why these experiences have impacted their development, behaviour and relationships. During individual counselling sessions and pre-selection screening (Rule & John 2011), criteria were developed to select participants. Multiple forms of data collection, such as observations, videotapes of group sessions, and conversations with teachers and parents were employed while data were collected before and during group sessions.
The results revealed that group work was effective and received positively by the participants. Group work with girls can be utilised in schools by teachers, counsellors, trauma frontline workers or anyone who gives related support. Group work, support girls to change negative behaviour, to define positive life goals, improves self-image, helps to understand own feelings regarding past experiences and to build positive relationships.
Source: Child Abuse Research in South Africa 13, pp 22 –34 (2012)More Less
This article looks at child molesters, the profile of child molesters, aspects that contribute to them offending, the role of therapists and the treatment process. It illustrates the role of the Department of Correctional Services (DCS) in the rehabilitation of child molesters. Data was collected by means of questionnaires and interviews with 20 respondents working as social workers within corrections. The general perception within the community is for these offenders to be locked up and for them not to reoffend when released. Although the Department of Correctional Services is responsible for and should play a vital role in the rehabilitation of child molesters, the community and other important stakeholders such as church leaders, teachers and social workers also need to help in this difficult process of change management among these sex offenders.
The quality of service of the Family Violence, Child Protection and Sexual Offences Unit of the South African police service, post-2010Author Johan Van GraanSource: Child Abuse Research in South Africa 13, pp 35 –44 (2012)More Less
Literature indicates that police organisations in poor and middle-income countries are providing specialised policing services relating to crimes against children mainly as a centralised service, while those in wealthier countries provide decentralised services. Having reviewed the literature, an attempt is made to determine how external service delivery provided by the Family Violence, Child Protection and Sexual Offences Unit can be improved. This unit's quality of external service delivery after re-introduction of the unit to a centralised capacity in 2010 is examined exploring the current state of affairs. In order to draw a comparison of the quality of services provided by this unit after re-introduction, research was undertaken among a West Rand Unit Commander of the Family Violence, Child Protection and Sexual Offences Unit, non-governmental organisations and senior public prosecutors directly involved in dealing with family violence, child protection and sexual offences in the West Rand policing area. Data for the study was gathered through a literature review and semi-structured interviews. The research findings indicate that the provision of centralised policing services relating to family violence, child protection and sexual offences is more advantageous for effective service delivery in the South African context as opposed to a decentralised structure.
Source: Child Abuse Research in South Africa 13, pp 45 –56 (2012)More Less
The prevalence of child sexual abuse in South Africa is very high, and even though the reporting of child sexual abuse is legislated by the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act (32 of 2007), the rate at which sexual abuse is reported is alarmingly low. Based on experiences obtained in private practice, it is the researcher's opinion that many parents are concerned about the possibility of their child being abused, or have knowledge that their child is being sexually abused, but fail to report it. This article focuses on these parents' experiences of this devastating process in order to explore and describe an appropriate protocol that will empower non-offending parents to report child sexual abuse.
To achieve the abovementioned objectives, a qualitative research design through the utilization of case studies was employed. Ten interviews and a focus group were conducted during which an interview schedule focussing on the parents' reactions, perceived support, and experiences of reporting was explored. Ethical considerations were included during this process. After this data was analysed, it was compared with applicable literature and a proposed protocol was formulated. This proposed protocol can be used by health professionals to empower parents to report and will contribute to the intervention strategies in forensic investigations.
Author Steven J. CollingsSource: Child Abuse Research in South Africa 13, pp 57 –63 (2012)More Less
Objectives : This paper critically examines empirical evidence relating to the intergenerational transmission of child sexual abuse.
Results : Although available research has identified a history of child sexual abuse in a sizable proportion of identified or self-reported child molesters, it has been found that many (if not most) child sexual offenders do not have a past history of child sexual abuse.
Conclusions : The paper concludes by suggesting the need for methodological improvements in the field, as well as a need for a more adequate and comprehensive conceptualisation of the dynamics of intergenerational transmission in child sexual abuse.
Source: Child Abuse Research in South Africa 13, pp 64 –74 (2012)More Less
This case study was undertaken to investigate the role teachers played in promoting, permitting and preventing bullying in a co-educational international school, situated in Maseru, Lesotho. This school serves Preschool to Grade 10 children of expatriate and local families. Online questionnaires were completed by learners and teachers. The study found that bullying is widespread in the school despite the safe and inviting culture created by the teachers' caring and respectful demeanour towards their learners. This paradox may be attributed to different views on the prevalence of bullying, teachers' inappropriate behaviour when bullying occurs, and teachers' apathy towards bullying, as well as learners' unwillingness to report cases of bullying to their teachers. The study recommends the development, implementation and evaluation of an encompassing research based anti-bullying programme for the school, as well as the training of teachers in bullying prevention strategies.
Author Ansie FoucheSource: Child Abuse Research in South Africa 13, pp 75 –86 (2012)More Less
In South Africa, the new Children's Act 38 of 2005 was promulgated, inter alia, to reduce statutory intervention in the lives of South African families and make family members and communities mainly responsible for the protection of their children. However, despite impressive legislation, action plans, and school-based prevention programmes, a significant increase of 36.1 percent in reported sexual offences against children between 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 was announced by the South African Police Service. This literature review, firstly, explores the scope and impact of sexual child abuse and, thereafter, highlights international and national response to the plight of prevention. Following this, an ecological framework is applied, where prevention requires an understanding of the factors that increase the risk of childhood sexual abuse. Lastly, intervention research is proposed for the way forward.