The authors consider child offenders to be in fact victims of circumstances and as such they are part of the child abuse and neglect problem. They review the crime prevention scene in South Africa from this perspective, especially in terms of the National Crime Prevention Strategy (NCPS) and steps taken by various agencies in this connection.
Project Awareness is based on Life Skills Education within the school curriculum. It was implemented in 1998 in the Pretoria region and ran for a three year period. It involved about 15 000 pupils, 300 teachers, 15 organisations and between 30 and 40 presenters annually. The Project provides a model for schools to establish a nurturing service for learners linked to a permanent support system of teachers, parents and professionals in the community. Some activities are curricular, others extra-curricular and still others are community projects. One intervention or activity automatically leads to more activities. Guidelines are provided to promote a cooperative and inclusive approach and a summary provides a concise overview of what the advantages of the model are.
The lack of safety and the powerlessness of abused children have received professional attention as far as the effectiveness of therapy is concerned, but the relationship between the lack of safety and powerlessness on the one hand and disclosure on the other hand, does not seem to have received adequate attention.
Four case studies are provided and a case is made for utilising the creation of safety and empowerment to facilitate disclosure. The need for research in this regard is indicated.
In this article the author briefly reviews causes of physical child abuse, factors relating to its diagnosis and typical physical findings in this connection. He also recommends a procedure for health workers to follow where physical child abuse is suspected.