Referring to the agreements which agents of European states made with African chiefs in the late nineteenth century, Frederick Lugard, said that they ere "produced in cartloads". Several writers have expressed the opinion that, from an international law point of view, these cartloads of "treaties" were just scraps of paper which neither imposed legal obligations nor conferred any rights. It is said that at best they were moral rights and duties which could be ignored at the whim of the European states. In this paper the author examines some of these arguments in relation to the agreements which the British made with African chiefs in the late nineteenth century and endeavour to establish the legal significance of these agreements in international law and in British municipal law.
In November 1984 a draft bill for a new Sectional Titles Act was published proposing a great variety of amendments to the present Sectional Titles Act. An improved version of this draft bill was introduced in the South African parliament during the first half of 1986 as the Sectional Titles Bill and this was further amended as a result of the deliberations of the standing committee on Communications and Public Works. This final bill was promulgated on 17 September 1986 as the new Sectional Titles Act 95 of 1986. The aim of this article is to evaluate this "second generation" Sectional Titles Act in the light of the Uniform Condominium Act. No attempt is made to analyse each and every provision of the two statutes. Only a broad overview is given and dissimilarities highlighted in order to suggest possible improvements.
In this article the authors consider the historical development of victim compensation, the present state of Israeli law, the philosophical and legal issues relating to the adoption of a compensation scheme, and the proper scope and limitations of such a scheme. The operating mechanism and funding for such a scheme are also considered. Comparisons are made as far as possible with the available literature on the existing American schemes. The analysis is restricted to crime victims suffering some form of personal injury, this being the focus of most compensation schemes, as well as of the recent federal legislation. The rationale for this limitation is explained in the article.
In South African law, it is not possible to obtain ownership in airspace at this stage because the application certain common law principles prohibits this. Even in the case of sectional ownership, the owner of a section remains co-owner of an undivided share in the land, and it is not possible to separate ownership of a part of the building totally from ownership of the land. There are, however, several ways in which a person can obtain rights to the use of a building belonging to another person. The article compares the concept of ownership in Dutch, German, Austrian, and American law. It then reviews legal aspects regarding airspace development in South African law.
The right to be free from slavery, servitude and forced labour is a fundamental human right. Its importance is highlighted by the fact that it is found in numerous conventions both on the international level and in national constitutions. The number of cases arising from the interpretation of this provision in the European Convention clearly indicates that it is vital that this right should be included in any possible Bill of Rights for South Africa. It would appear that South Africa is gradually moving in the direction of accepting a Bill of Rights as a basic standard. It is therefore imperative that any such future Bill of Rights should include an absolute and non-derogatory prohibition on slavery, servitude and forced labour.
In this contribution the current legal developments in Bophuthatswana, Botswana, Ciskei, South Africa, South West Africa/Namibia, Swaziland, Transkei, Venda and Zambia with regards to principal legislation, government notices and judicial decisions are briefly descriptionbed.