oa Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese - Bretting's design formulae for turbulent flow in closed conduits



In this paper a review of A. E. Bretting's work is given in which he developed from fundamental considerations a series of formulae, related to the well-known Manning formula, for rough-turbulent flow in closed conduits. It is shown that the Bretting formulae are a considerable improvement on the Manning formula and take into account parameters such as relative roughness and Reynolds number, which make them valid over a greater range of flow than the Manning formula.


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