oa Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese - Bretting's design formulae for turbulent flow in closed conduits
|Article Title||Bretting's design formulae for turbulent flow in closed conduits|
|© Publisher:||South African Institution Of Civil Engineering (SAICE)|
|Journal||Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese|
|Affiliations||1 Department of Water Affairs, Pretoria|
|Publication Date||Dec 1971|
|Pages||441 - 446|
|Keyword(s)||Circular pipes, Energy line, Flow characteristics, Friction factor, Gravitational acceleration, Hydraulic model testing, Kinematic viscosity, Laminar flow, Nikuradse pipe, Roughness factor and Velocity|
In this paper a review of A. E. Bretting's work is given in which he developed from fundamental considerations a series of formulae, related to the well-known Manning formula, for rough-turbulent flow in closed conduits. It is shown that the Bretting formulae are a considerable improvement on the Manning formula and take into account parameters such as relative roughness and Reynolds number, which make them valid over a greater range of flow than the Manning formula.
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