oa Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese - Railway asset maintenance and management education initiatives
Extracted from text ... PLANNING, DESIGN AND construction activities have traditionally been the main focus in actual practice and consequently also formed the focus of undergraduate training and education of civil engineers. 'Upstream and downstream' engineering activities normally tended to be seen as outside the realm of civil engineering, as they were deemed less technical and analytical than hard-core 'mid-stream' focus areas. But the civil engineering industry has experienced a paradigm shift in recent years in a number of ways. One of the most significant has been an appreciation of the full life-cycle cost and associated maintenance and management of civil engineering fixed asset ..
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