oa Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese - Benchmarking and tracking of water losses in all municipalities of South Africa

Volume 19, Issue 5
  • ISSN : 1021-2000



South Africa is a water-scarce country with an annual runoff that is less than 13% of the world average. In addition, the country has a very uneven rainfall distribution varying from 10 mm/annum in the west to over 2 000 mm/annum in the Drakensberg Mountains in the east. Despite limited water resources and continually increasing demands, very few municipalities can provide accurate water balance data and most have no accurate record-keeping of their input volume or billed consumption.

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