oa Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese - The changing landscape for civil engineering contracts : moving on from SABS 1200 : international : ICE-SA division
Dr Martin Barnes, the originator of the NEC Engineering and Construction Contract, in his Smeaton Lecture (1999), pointed out that virtually no civil engineering was carried out in the UK after the Romans left until the seventeenth century; the two notable major works being the Exeter Ship Canal (1567) and the drainage of the Fens. This all changed between the 1760s and the 1850s. John Smeaton, who is often regarded as the founder of civil engineering and whose largest project was the Forth and Clyde Canal linking the East side of Scotland to the West, developed his approach to managing works.
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