oa Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese - Variable demand traffic modelling : introducing realities : transportation engineering
In most urban areas the demand for road space has increased to a point where the traffic demand during peak periods far exceeds the available road capacity, or supply, resulting in congestion. The higher the levels of congestion, the longer it takes to reach one's destination. This gets to the point where road users make certain decisions regarding their travel plans, such as to start their trips earlier or later to miss the peak periods, which results in peak spreading. Prior to the upgrading of the Gauteng freeways it was recorded that the peak period (this being the period where the freeways were running at their maximum capacity) was extending by 15 minutes every year.
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