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n Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese - Improving plant efficiency and operating costs for water infrastructure projects in Africa : water engineering
Reducing the operating costs of water infrastructure projects demands improved efficiencies in operating treatment plants (water and wastewater). To eliminate or reduce contaminants in raw water in order to render it safe for drinking, or to reduce pollutants in wastewater to render it acceptable for disposal into our environment, costs money. These operating costs include the following:
- Wastewater discharge fee/Water resource fee
- Electricity cost
- Chemical cost
- Staff cost
- Maintenance and replacement cost
- Administration cost
- Sludge disposal cost
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