n Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese - Evaluation of the plastic deformation of leaks in pipes : young members' pages

Volume 23, Issue 2
  • ISSN : 1021-2000



Water is a basic human right that is essential for life. In recent years, the world has experienced many challenges with water, particularly concerning water quality and quantity. More than 6 000 children die each day from preventable waterborne diseases, and less than 1% of the earth's water is suitable for human consumption (WISA 2009). On a local scale, South Africa is also faced with these challenges of water quantity and quality. One of these issues is water losses through leakages. A study of 62 systems in South Africa found that on average 31% of water supplied to urban systems, or 670 million cubic metres per annum of water, is lost through leakages in pipes (Seago & McKenzie 2007).

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