Ports and terminals compete fiercely for container traffic. Those with the most efficient operations stand to win the most business and generate the highest profits. Driving down costs is crucial to remaining competitive. Upgrading to the latest light emitting diode (LED) lighting technology contributes to terminal cost control. Light fixtures installed on port container cranes endure constant vibration, moisture and corrosion - elements always present in marine environments. These extreme conditions result in premature lighting fixture failure, demanding constant maintenance and increasing material and labour costs. Installing properly designed LED fixtures on port container cranes can immediately reduce energy usage, reduce crane maintenance costs and increase operator safety, while moving terminal operators closer to the universal goals of safety, sustainability and profitability (Hertel 2009: 70).
This article assesses the spread and consistency of results from different tests carried out on a road project. The aim is to understand the possible causes and effects of variations between results, in order to assist the construction team in the planning, execution and monitoring of construction works. It should be noted that huge variations within a set of results may make the process of producing the test items more expensive, since the COLTO2 acceptance limit La increases for higher sample standard deviation.
This article is the second in a three-part series based on the author's conviction that engineers get things done. Part 1 (published in the January/ February 2016 edition of Civil Engineering) expanded on what engineers actually do, and on their initial training and experience. Part 2 picks up on engineering within political and economic climates, and engineers' capacity to develop and implement plans.
In the concrete industry it is always the goal to gain a 28-day compressive strength while simultaneously achieving a 'cost optimum' during the construction period. The 'cost optimum' is the balance between three parameters, namely (1) the early strength required when applying load, (2) the cost of the concrete mix-design, and (3) the shortest cycle times within the pre-designed production work flow. Traditionally the performance indicator available to manage this process is a test specimen cured in the laboratory or in the field. However, in almost all cases test specimens fail to accurately fulfil this important role. The next generation of real-time in-place maturity measurement systems have all the specifications that allow construction staff to cost-optimise output, and are also easy to use.
Back from left: Brian Alexander, Brian Holdridge, Peter Flower, Keith Mackie, Tony Boniface, Robert Blyth Front from left: Veronica Coetzee, Chris Roth (chairman), Tony Murray, Catherine Crawford Stutterheim