Where vertical load must be transmitted into a reinforced concrete wall or similar structural element, it is often necessary to accomplish this through the use of a corbel, continuous nib, or corbel ring. In certain situations a conceptual decision can be made by the designer in choosing between using cast-in-situ corbels or precast bolt-on units.
A qualitative and empirical scale of the significance of the probability of failure in slopes, based on published case studies, is presented. The suitability of the scale is illustrated in tenns of examples on soil, mine tailings and rock slopes. It is further illustrated that the peak strength parameters obtained in the usual way for soil and rock slopes are sufficiently reliable to calculate the probability of failure.