The presence of air in a water pipeline may seriously a effect the operation of such a pipeline, the most significant effect being the increase in friction head loss. The authors enumerate the various problems that have been encountered with air entrainment, discuss some of the previously proposed solutions, and summarize some of the more important research findings in this field.
*Reproduced with authority from the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineers. IABSE Journal J-18/83. February 1983. Feedback from experience is essential because engineering is still basically empirical. Failures continue to occur. No one has the same understanding of a structure as its designer, and he should maintain long-term contact with it When the designer dies, It is not fanciful to say that something is lost to the structure.