When the South African Transport Services decided to vacate and sell its 28 ha centre city property in Durban - the old Durban Station site - the city was given a unique opportunity to remodel its city centre. The decision to celebrate Durban's 150th anniversary in a spectacular way in 1985 and to use this site for Expo 85 resulted in uncommon development activity.
This paper deals with the development of a finite element program suitable for solving general shell problems. An element is developed which can be used for analysing both thick and thin shells of double or single curvature. The element is able to reflect membrane and bending forces.
The paper descriptionbed the preliminary route location and some aspects of the detailed route location for deviation of an approximately 22 km long portion of the existing line between Paulpietersburg and Vryheid in Northern Natal which was required to achieve the higher gradient standards set for the coal line improvements.