The hydraulic behaviour of compound channels Is made complex by the interactions between main channel and flood plain flows. Oversimplified analysis can result In large errors in estimates of carrying capacities or flood levels.
Free-standing masonry walls are generally proportioned or 'designed' in accordance with empirical rules contained In the National Building Regulations. This approach can be both restrictive and uneconomical. Design charts, based on the codes of practice as listed in the National Building Regulations, are presented lor a wide range of wall heights and pier configurations for walls with and without dampproof courses In order to rationalize the design of free-standlng walls.
Turnout design in South Africa did not previously follow European developments closely. At the outset of the large-scale coal exporting programme there were therefore no suitable turnouts to handle the heavy annual traffic load In private sidings. Consulting engineers had to design track layouts with the existing types of turnouts. The result was heavy wear on switches and crossings. As there was no time to Introduce more advanced designs and with the aim of keeping costs as low as possible, steps were taken to improve the features of existing turnouts with minimum change to basic measurements and structure. Thus was the stage set for the development of the IC switch.