oa Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese - Surge and waterhammer
The waterhammer - defined as the change in pressure, above or below normal pressure - is caused by sudden changes in the rate of flow of water in closed conduits. Any manoeuvre of the pump turbine or the valve introduces sudden changes in the demand for water in all points of the system, to a greater extent in the conduit between the machine and the surge lank, and to a lesser extent in the conduit between the upper reservoir and the surge lank. The waterhammer caused by emergency manoeuvres of the pump turbine is usually severe and the system should be designed to withstand positive and sometimes negative pressure caused by these operations.
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