oa Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese - The waterway design
Internal design pressures were determined by the surge and waterhammer analysis, descriptionbed in the paper by J R Kawiak. External design pressures from the waterway empty condition were taken to be 1,5 MPa for the tunnel and shaft portions and 0,5 MPa for the headrace and penstock. These were based on the maximum ground water or grouting pressures. Optimization of waterway diameters and the selection of steel types ranging from mild steel (250 MPa yield strength) to Roqtuf (up to 690 MPa yield strength) are also referred to in the paper on the development of the design by Pyzikowski, Heidstra and Hillyard. The allowable steel stress for internal pressure design varied from 50 per cent (for the bifurcation) to 60 per cent (for straight sections) of the guaranteed minimum yield point. A weld strength factor of 0,9 was assumed, except at stress-relieved sections, where 1,0 was used.
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