oa Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese - Hydraulic roughness change in the Orange-Fish Tunnel: 1975-1990
The hydraulic roughness of the 82,8 km long, 5,33 m diameter, 47,6 m'/sec design capacity Orange-Fish Tunnel was comprehensively tested during commissioning in 1975. The tunnel friction was spot-tested in 1984 and then comprehensively tested again in successive years from 1988 to 1990. These tests showed a hydraulic aging rate for the concrete-lined pressure tunnel that was greater than that expected at design stage and, indeed, outside commonly used ultimate design roughnesses.
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