TRACTM (Transportation and Civil Engineering) is an innovative way of enhancing science and mathematics for high school pupils by means of computer technology. The aim is to stimulate high school pupils' interest in applied science, enabling and encouraging them to enter a technological career, more specifically the field of transportation. The TRAC PACTM is a self-contained laboratory consisting of a micro-computer, software, sensor equipment, a digital interface for collecting data and other apparatus. It consists of 30 structured experiments and has the potential to support additional applications that innovative teachers and pupils may develop. The experiments have been designed to compliment the structured school syllabus
In a short period an upgrading project has had a positive impact on the standard of living of 140 000 people residing in 17 towns in the southern Free State The Bloem-Area District Council decided in the third quarter of 1993 to upgrade the water and sanitation systems of the 17 towns in the southern Free State under its jurisdiction. It thus initiated the Southern Free State Water and Sanitation Project. which was later supplemented by an electrification component as well. It was the District Council's aim that each of the approximately 17 000 inhabited residential stands should have an individually metered water connection, a water closet and access to electricity.
The extensive overhaul and reconstruction of the Cullinan Water Treatment Plant demanded an unusual mix of creative and sound, detailed engineering skiffs The Cullinan Water Treatment Plant is situated in Cullinan some 50 km east of Pretoria and receives water from the Wilge River via a 60 km pipeline. The plant, originally constructed in 1904, had been extended and modified to the extent that it was no longer possible to run it efficiently. This combined with poor working process units produced water of an unacceptable quality.
One of the world's earliest reclamation plants for potable reuse is gearing up to provide a greater share of local supplies After more than 25 years of reusing water, Windhoek decided to extend its reclamation plant to maximum capacity. The entire plant has been re-evaluated, while strategies to divert some effluents, manage demand and monitor quality have been investigated.
Dam safety regulations promulgated in the late 1980s meant all dams larger than a certain size had to be registered with the Department of Water Affairs . However, mine tailings dams were exempt from the regulations as they related to safety inspections because such dams are so different from water dams. They would need their own safety regulations, it was realised. They were thus exempted from the regulations for five years, with this period later being extended. Then the Merriespruit disaster happened. This forced the issue and the Department of Minerals and Energy handed the task of developing a code of practice to the South African Bureau of Standards.
This article descriptionbes the flow failure of certain tailings dams and highlights the main factors leading to the failures. A descriptionption of a research project investigating, by means of physical modelling, the causes of flow failures and the parameters (if any) that govern their behaviour and dimensions is also presented.
The education of engineers, particularly at the higher education level, played a key role in Japan's modernisation. In that respect, Japan was not a latecomer; rather, it led the world when its modernisation started at the beginning of the Meiji period (1868-1912). We are still benefiting from the consequences today. When universities in nineteenth-century Europe were reorganised into modern universities, their new structure retained much of the traditional form. The new universities still consisted of faculties of philosophy, medicine, theology and jurisprudence. In some universities in the German-speaking areas, for instance, the faculty of philosophy was reorganised in 1875 to accommodate two newly created faculties, one of which corresponded to a 'faculty of science'.
Technology is the tool of civilisation. Engineering is fundamentally about making things. If there is such a thing as an 'engineering method' analogous to the scientific method, then it is distinguished from the scientific method by an emphasis on creation rather than on discovery. Primo Levi, an industrial chemist, put it best. In one of his biographical short stories he explains to a friend that 'the nobility of Man, acquired in a hundred centuries of trial and error, lay in making himself the conqueror of matter'. Engineering, at its heart, is about taking matter, understanding it, manipulating it and creating something new. This power of creation involves a great responsibility.
The challenge of providing affordable housing, basic services and facilities within our cities and regions can only be met if development plans consciously promote the social, economic and spatial integration of regions and Cities. The HSRC is engaged in research in various fields aimed at promoting such integrated planning and development. Staff of the HSRC's Development Planning and Policy Unit (DPPU) have been ~engaged in research on changing residential patterns in the Pretoria area. This includes examining the process of residential desegregation, particularly in formerly white 'group areas', and identifying zones of transition that may provide opportunities for in-fill and densification. In the formerly black townships there are certain important trends, including the upgrading and development of hostels and the emergence of new forms of inequality and residential segregation.
No-one concerned with South Africa's future economic welfare can question the desirability of genuine foreign investment. We need access to foreign savings to fund enterprises that will be profitable to both borrower and lender alike. Such investment should, however, be distinguished from foreign aid for RDP purposes on the one hand and soft loans from foreign countries whose own interests may conflict with ours on the other. Government decisions on the funding of large projects like the Maputo Corridor should be informed by these distinctions.
Autodesk has announced new technology that will change the way design professionals distribute and view drawings. This technology will facilitate communication between engineers, architects and other design professionals by increasing the use of shared digital designs over the Internet in a secure and easy-to-use environment. 'This technology will help the communication process, making the Internet the ultimate collaborative platform for design: said Bill Gordon, MD of Autodesk Africa. 'For example, designers will be able simply to drag standard parts from suppliers' on-line catalogues and drop them directly into their designs, saving time and money and ensuring design accuracy. The beauty of this medium is that our customers will be able to communicate design Intent to anyone who has access to the Internet, including people who have no AutoCAD expertise.'
The first trails were probably from the dwelling cave to water and to the places where prey might be expected to be found. When a move was necessary through bush country it would have been logical to follow the pathways opened up by game. As people became more civilised and friendly (do the two necessarily go together?) these pathways would have been opened up, but their location would still have been governed by what was there previously, by the desire to avoid denser patches of bush or rocky outcrops.
Alistair Gilmour, vice-president of Eurobitume, talked about the importance of global debates that move this industry forward. On the subject of road surfacing, Mr Gilmour said that significant efforts are being made all the time to improve performance, bearing capacity, safety, noise and driving comfort by: Increased use of modified binders Improved selection of binders, aggregates and fillers Improved road design In porous asphalt, higher levels of porosity (up to 30 per cent or more in the future) and the introduction of the double layer concept
Differences of opinion on engineering contracts are fairly frequent, and procedures for resolving these disputes are no less so. The parties must choose an effective procedure at the outset if the tedium and expense of protracted proceedings are to be avoided. Mediation is generally preferred on the basis of time and cost considerations, and the first prize is obviously an agreed settlement negotiated with the mediator's assistance, encouragement and advice. Where agreement cannot be reached, the mediator is required to express an opinion, which the parties may either accept or reject, but in the event of rejection the dispute will go the far more expensive route to arbitration.