oa Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese - Land-use/transport development impacts
The shape and pattern of urbanised land in South African metropolitan areas show common characteristics such as low-density sprawl, fragmentation of development and the separation of land uses, urban elements, races as well as income groups. The combination of a monocentric economic activity structure, where the majority of jobs and services are concentrated, with a dispersed settlement of high-density low-income areas at the urban fringe has many adverse effects on poor households. The adverse effects include the generation of enormous amounts of movement, high transport costs and unnecessary time spent on transport. Long trips reduce opportunities for low-cost modes of transport, such as walking and cycling. It also results in a unidirectional flow of traffic during peak hours, which contributes to congestion and unproductive use of road space. The low-density sprawl in higher income areas prohibits the provision of viable transport services.
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