The Mzimvubu River presents the last major surface water resource available for exploitation in South Africa. The Mzimvubu River, which rises in the southern portion of the Drakensberg Mountains and drains a catchment of approximately 20 000 km2, located mostly in the north of the former Transkei, is likely to become the last major surface water resource exploited in South Africa .
The Orange River basin is the largest river basin in the country and the latest studies show possibilities for using its water even more effectively. The Orange River basin is by far the largest river basin in the country and more than half of its 1 million km2 catchment lies within South Africa, as can be seen in Fig 1. Although the Orange River rises in the east of the country like most other large rivers in South Africa, unlike the others it flows westwards for 2 300 km across the interior plateau before reaching the Atlantic Ocean. From the steep mountainous areas of Lesotho, the catchment topography gradually flattens and progressively assumes the nature of a desert and, near the river mouth, becomes one of the driest areas in the world.
Baseline information is being collected in order to establish an effective national waste management strategy. The process of collecting the vital technical background information on which South Africa's waste management strategy will be based began early in 1997. More than 1 000 questionnaires were distributed to local authorities. The national waste management strategy, aimed at alleviating South Africa's waste crisis, will be developed within the framework of an integrated pollution control and waste management (IPC&WM) policy. It will give greater resolution to the waste management components of the IPC&WM policy.
A limited right to sue the directors of a company for its debts is given to creditors in section 424 of the Companies Act. This says that when it appears that any business of a company was or is being carried on recklessly, or with intent to defraud its creditors or those of any other person, or for any fraudulent purpose, a court may declare that any person who was knowingly a party to the carrying on of the business in that manner shall be personally responsible for any of the debts or other liabilities of the company as the court may direct.
The basic principles of the electrical analogy to a mechanical vibrating system are explained by means of examples and the application of the analogy to analyses of the flow of fluids in complex pipe networks and open channels is briefly discussed.